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Technical Paper

A Holographic Head-Up Display for Low Visibility Landing Operations

1983-10-03
831451
A new system has been developed to meet the difficult requirements for aircraft operation in low visibility conditions. Unlike automatic systems, this system utilizes and enhances the pilots' flying ability through a holographic head-up display which provides bright, clear information across a wide field of view. The information presented is monitored to ensure probabilities of misleading the pilot to be on the order of one part in 10−8. The system is now undergoing verification tests in a B-727 turbo jet aircraft with the objective to obtain certification for use in CAT IIIa, 700 feet visibility conditions.
Technical Paper

Efforts to Assure Anthropometric Cockpit Compatibility in Navy Aircraft

1983-10-03
831455
Every aircraft crewstation has certain anthropometric requirements to ensure safe and efficient operability. Inappropriate assignment of individuals to a particular crewstation can result in aircraft mishaps, ejection injuries, reduced safety margins, and reassignments based on performance difficulties. An improved methodology to quantify the critical anthropometric factors is presented.
Technical Paper

Testing Ground Proximity Warning Systems for Navy Tactical Aircraft

1983-10-03
831456
Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents in the U.S. Navy have been the cause of a loss in preparedness for many years. The utilization of a commercially developed technology called Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) can help eliminate this type of accident. This paper will discuss the past efforts and the planned test activities as the Navy brings this technology into operational utilization.
Technical Paper

Methods and Instrumentation for Evaluation of Advanced Displays and Pilot Performance

1983-10-03
831462
Advances in technology have continuously provided new flight capabilities. Along with these new capabilities have come new demands on the flight crew. Pilots are now seeing a greater percentage of flight tasks being performed by automatic systems; however, data handling and integration tasks have reached new heights that now require more pilot attention. The pilot's changing role creates a greater burden on the system design and evaluation process, which is used to ensure the man-machine interface operates at satisfactory levels. Discussed in this paper are various methods for evaluating this interface at the different levels of system design.
Technical Paper

A Review and Comparison of Reciprocating Engine Operation Using Solid Fuels

1983-09-12
831362
Future fuels for internal-combustion engines will be derived increasingly from solids such as coal. An alternative to processing coal into liquid fuels is the direct use of solid coal by reciprocating, internal -combustion engines. Specific applications which would be especially suitable for solid fueled engines consist of stationary power plants, marine propulsion systems, and railroad locomotives. Agricultural, construction and mining equipment are examples of other possible applications. The objectives of this study were to review past research on the development of solid coal fueled engines and, from this review, to identify major technical problems and current research needs. The objectives also included comparing the energy usage of several fuels. This comparison indicated a possible 25% energy advantage by directly using solid coal fuels as opposed to using synfuels.
Technical Paper

Performance of Vegetable Oils and their Monoesters as Fuels for Diesel Engines

1983-09-12
831358
: Vegetable oils have the potential to be used as fuels for diesel engines. But in direct injection engines as they are used for agricultural tractors and trucks some difficulties with vegetable oils - even with fully refined oils -are noticed, so that long time operation is impossible. Enginetests were made to evaluate some modifications to these oils. The result is that the former problems do not occur with derivates of vegetable oils after transesterification with ethanol or methanol, if the injection is advanced.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Production and Associated Component Developments in the United Kingdom

1984-02-01
840477
Lucas Chloride EV Systems Limited is supplying complete productionised electric vehicle drive lines to four major motor vehicle manufacturers in the UK. Approximately 350 electric vehicles are scheduled to be built in the first 4 months of 1984. Necessary conditions for customer satisfaction are vehicle reliability and acceptable operating cost, both of which must be at least as good as those for the gasoline engined equivalent vehicle. A system design approach has been adopted as the only possible means by which the required targets of reliability and cost can be met with production electric vehicles in service. The paper describes the components and highlights the design philosophy which allows these targets to be achieved with production units in service.
Technical Paper

Gear Noise Analysis Using Modern Signal Processing and Numerical Modeling Techniques

1984-02-01
840478
Vibration and noise generated by the mesh of gears rotating under load are complex phenomena that are difficult to analyze. Recent advances in digital signal processing make it possible to use measured vibration signals on gear bearings to construct the time history of the excitation of the gear mesh. Also, recent advances in numerical models of gears make it possible to predict the load distribution on the teeth in the mesh, and the associated vibration excitation. Combining these two techniques provides useful input to the design of quiet gears, and the monitoring of gear vibrations to detect failures.
Technical Paper

A Multitasking Finite State Architecture for Computer Control of an Electric Powertrain

1984-02-01
840476
Finite state techniques provide a common design language between the control engineer and the computer engineer for event driven computer control systems. They simplify communication and provide a highly maintainable control system understandable by both. This paper describes the development of a control system for an electric vehicle powertrain utilizing finite state concepts. The basics of finite state automata are provided as a framework to discuss a unique multitasking software architecture developed for this application. The architecture employs conventional time-sliced techniques with task scheduling controlled by a finite state machine representation of the control strategy of the powertrain. The complexities of excitation variable sampling in this environment are also considered.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction of Engines by Structural Modifications

1984-02-01
840483
This paper describes the efforts made on an in-line 6-cylinder diesel engine to identify its major noise sources and to reduce their contribution by means of structural modifications, in order to achieve a 3 dBA reduction in the engine overall noise level. Both acoustic intensity and modal analysis techniques were used to identify the important noise sources on the engine and their dynamic characteristics. Modifications to the important sources were designed using experimental, analytical, and plastic modelling techniques. The modifications which included stiffening, damping, and isolation were applied to the engine and their effectiveness verified under typical operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Dynamic Elastomer Properties in a Torsional Vibration Damper

1984-02-01
840481
A method has been developed for determining the damping and stiffness of an elastomeric engine crankshaft vibration damper by using the frequencies where the peak ring acceleration and amplitude occur. An FFT analyzer with integration capabilities and a linear accelerometer were the instruments used for making the necessary measurements. The resulting damping calculation correlated very well with the damping determined by other methods. The FFT used in these tests lacked frequency expansion capabilities, which could result in a substantial error in the calculated damping value for low damping elastomers.
Technical Paper

Whole Body Vibration Exposure of Surface Coal Mining Machine Operators

1984-02-01
840479
Field measurements utilizing a seat pad accelerometer were made on 61 surface coal mining machines in order to quantify the vibration levels experienced by the operators. Those data were combined with information on the statistics of the operating times of those machines in order to compare the operator's vibration exposure to the criteria in ISO 2631, “A Guide for the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole Body Vibration.” The comparison showed that about half of all surface coal mining machine operators can be expected to be exposed to vibration exceeding the fatigue decreased proficiency criterion, whereas only 7% to 22% would be expected to experience vibration exceeding the exposure limit. Detailed exposure statistics are presented and the implications of the results are discussed.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Testing of Nonvolatile Memory Retention

1984-02-01
840488
This paper discusses the testing for retentivity of non-volatile memories. The physics associated with the reliable production of various non-volatile data storage devices has long been a topic of debate. The ability to reliably produce devices which endure erase/write cycling and retain data for extended periods of time has been questionable. Recent improvements in IC processing has given rise to claims of enhancements in both of these areas. Non-volatile memories are attractive in many automotive electronic applications where battery backup is neither convenient or feasible, but because of reliability concerns they have not found their way into critical applications. In applications like odometer or emission control calibrations it is imperative that memory retention is assured. In order to verify the reliability of the various available non-volatile memory devices, an accelerated test program was instituted.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Mounting Stiffness On Frequencies Measured In a Vibration Test

1984-02-01
840480
The goal of vibration testing is to obtain a good representation of the mode shapes and associated natural frequencies of a mechanical system. Often the test setups for vehicles are designed to approximate free-free boundary conditions. Ideally the stiffness and mass of the actual mounting system should be attached so that the measured mode shapes and frequencies of the test structure are unchanged. In practice, this is not possible and the quantitative influence of mounting stiffness on measured frequencies is of interest. Two models have been analyzed and will be discussed in this paper. First, a model having one vibrational degree of freedom was chosen because it is the easiest system to analyze and because it represents an individual uncoupled mode of a multiple degree-of-freedom system. Second, a whole car was analyzed to provide a realistic assessment of the influence of mounting stiffness on a vehicle vibration test.
Technical Paper

Elimination of Incoming Inspection- A Supplier/Manufacturer Product-Quality Improvement Program

1984-02-01
840487
Incoming inspection of complex microcircuits can be eliminated by improving product quality through supplier/manufacturer cooperation. Economic benefits are derived from reduced cycle times, elimination of excessive inventories, and reduction in capital and personnel resources. A product-quality improvement program involving Chrysler and RCA is directed toward these goals. Analysis of out-of-specification devices in a kit supplied to Chrysler identified areas for corrective action. As a result of these actions, out-of-specification devices were reduced from 6000 to less than 600 parts per million in nine months. It was then decided to evaluate the feasibility of eliminating incoming inspection of one device in the kit. Detailed analysis of out-of-specification devices identified areas for corrective action which can reduce the fallout by 50% and lead to eventual elimination of incoming inspection.
Technical Paper

Development of Reliability Prediction Models for Electronic Components in Automotive Applications

1984-02-01
840486
This paper discusses models for predicting the reliability of electronic components used in automotive applications. These models were developed on data submitted by members of the Reliability Subcommittee of the Electronic Systems Committee of the SAE and hence the data base used for the development of these models includes no military data (automotive data only). The approach used for developing these models is also presented.
Technical Paper

On-Board Computer System for Navigation, Orientation and Route Optimization

1984-02-01
840485
In our complex road network, it is increasingly necessary to help the driver in route guidance and orientation. Already developed route guidance systems are mostly frustrated by the difficulties of financing of the roadside equipment. As a new approach in development of such systems, self-sufficient route guidance systems for use in both the trunk highway system and the inner-city street system are presented.
Technical Paper

Development of Multiplex Wiring System with Optical Data Link for Automobiles

1984-02-01
840492
This paper contains an explanation of a Multiplex Wiring System with Optical Data-Link for cars, which has been installed in the Toyota “Century” since 1982. In this system, a total of 64 signals related to door wiring are transmitted in a multiplex fashion, and the number of wires from the front right-hand door to the interior could be reduced from 46 wires, which were used with conventional wiring techniques, to 10 wires including 2 plastic optical fibers. This system also has various control functions which includes a door-lock control function. In order to give high reliability to this system, we have developed a new optical data-link as well as a new custom micro-computer. And in the automobile industry, such a large scale multiplex wiring system having high reliability is very innovative in our opinion and will surely have a large impact in the future.
Technical Paper

Quality and Reliability of an Electronic Automobile Dashboard

1984-02-01
840491
The present paper describes the quality and reliability assurance plan referred to an electronic automobile dashboard developed by the Zanussi Group. The following items are considered: - Mathematical reliability evaluation of the system, assuming that standard commercial parts are used, either previously submitted to a screening process or not; - Incoming inspection procedures for electronic components; - Test procedures on production and self--diagnosis program; - System maintenability considerations and future improvements of the reliability figure.
Technical Paper

Reliability Considerations for Automotive Electrical Wiring Systems

1984-02-01
840490
The increasing use of electronics for driver and engine controls also increases the complexity of the automotive wiring system. In conjunction with this are more stringent electrical system reliability requirements. A general, disciplined approach to prediction of automotive electrical wiring reliability will be discussed, but the focus will be on the structuring of field testing. Use of field test data to make reliability statements about the electrical wiring will be presented. Finally, various uses of reliability data will be suggested.
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