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Technical Paper

Chrysler Collision Detection (C2D)-A Revolutionary Vehicle Network

1986-02-01
860389
The automotive component manufacturers of electronic equipment have been touting the virtues of vehicle multiplexing for years. Some articles are illustrated with dramatic pictures of the amount of wire that can be saved by multiplexing. However, the domestic vehicle manufacturers have not endorsed these concepts. Why not? A comprehensive study of the vehicle multiplexing situation has now been completed and this paper addresses the real cost savings and reliability impact of wire multiplexing. Fusing aspects and vehicle wiring changes are also addressed. A revolutionary Vehicle Data Communication Network, and the required interface to make it a reality, are also described in this paper. There is a dedicated SAE activity to establish an industry standard for a vehicle multiplex network. This work has the energetic support of the whole automobile industry and is particularly viewed as a necessity for diagnostic purposes.
Technical Paper

Microcomputer Based Serial Multiples Wiper Control System

1986-02-01
860393
The introduction of microcomputer controlled Serial Multiplex Systems, multifunction “Smart switches”, and “Smart Power MOSFETs” provide the opportunity to enhance the wiper control system on passenger cars. As part of a Multiplex System, the Smart Wiper Control System lends itself to ergonomic styling in addition to offering the following innovations: 1. Variable wiper motor speed 2. Vehicle operator defined intermittent wipe interval 3. Fault tolerant controls 4. Self test and system diagnostics This paper describes software and hardware considerations in the implementation of a Smart Wiper Control System - a system that provides a direct feedback to the operator, improves mechanical reliability, and provides diagnostic capability.
Technical Paper

Application of Computer Graphics to Drive Train Engineering at Toyota Motor

1986-02-01
860388
A computer aided design system has been developed to greatly improve productivity in drive train engineering. The purpose of this system is to computerize the design and drafting process which occupies so many man-hours in drive train engineering activities. Investigation of the drive train design and drafting process has clarified the requirements of the computer aided system. As a result, a turn-key system has been selected because the system almost satisfies the requirements. In order to make this system more effective, numerous application programs for the drive train design have been developed and the drawing data have been accumulated intentionally as the database of this system. This paper describes some application programs, in particular, details of two programs which have shown themselves to be an effective means for design. One is a torque converter design system and the other is a tolerance stack up program.
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Networking - Serial Communication Requirements and Directions

1986-02-01
860390
In recent years the functionality of automotive systems has been improved by the introduction of real time Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for engine management, anti-lock braking, and other applications. For customer comfort and convenience, body electronics options have also increased, including electronic windows, seat control, and others. Optimization of performance requires integrating the vehicle of the 90s as a system rather than a grouping of individual modules. As a result, inter - communication between real time ECUs as well as between body electronics modules is required. By linking vehicle electronics into a network or combination of networks, a cost-effective solution which guarantees required performance and maximum flexibility may be obtained.
Technical Paper

Using Motors in Automotive Multiplex Systems

1986-02-01
860394
Motors are the end of the line in multiplex systems. They are; however, the only part of the system that performs any real work. The multiplex system must relay information from the user to the motor and the motor must act on this information in an appropriate manner. This paper analyzes the motor/multiplex system interface and presents a solution to this problem. By integrating the diagnostic, communication, and power electronics within the motor (i.e. a smart motor), interface problems associated with output control are minimized. This allows total control over the motor directly from a body computer, demultiplexing node, or other device capable of producing the appropriate digital signals. By providing diagnostic information concerning the operational state of both the motor and the control electronics, the smart motor allows more, intelligent control of these subsystems.
Technical Paper

Automotive Serial Controller Area Network

1986-02-01
860391
A high speed serial communication link has been developed for interconnecting electronic control units within automobiles. The incorporation of object oriented communication in conjunction with acceptance filtering introduces a new level of message handling efficiency and flexibility. Powerful error handling techniques guarantee safe operation in noisy automotive environments.
Technical Paper

The Emergence of Light Trucks: Impact on Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

1986-02-01
860365
The largest sales year for passenger cars and light trucks in the last eight years was. 1985. The light truck share of the light duty vehicle market increased from 21.0 percent in 1978 to 27.9 percent in 1985. Light trucks, on average, are less efficient than passenger cars. As light trucks enlarged their share in an expanded market, the impact on overall fuel economy increases has been dampened. Several explanations have been given for the increased consumer purchases of light trucks: low cost for many models, the availability of 4-wheel drive, temporary import limits on Japanese auto imports and increased nameplate offerings. The light duty vehicle fuel economy gain of 5.7 MPG between 1978 and 1985 would have been 8.8 percent higher if there had not been any shift in share toward light trucks during that period.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust-to-Coolant Heat Transfer on Warm-up Time and Fuel Consumption of Two Automobile Engines

1986-02-01
860363
A 1977 Buick V-6 engine and a 1981 Ford Granada automobile were equipped with heat exchangers to transfer energy from the exhaust gases to the cooling water after cold starts in order to shorten engine warm-up periods and improve fuel economy. A parallel concern was the time required to reach satisfactory heat delivery to the passenger compartment. The Buick engine was investigated in the laboratory. The Ford automobile was tested during driving over a 12.4 km length of freeway and over an 8.6 km test route including both in-town and highway segments. Prior to each test run the engines were exposed to ambient air for at least 8 hours at temperatures ranging from −26° C to + 2° C. The use of the heat exchangers resulted in average reductions of fuel consumption of 2.8% during a 7 minute warm-up period for the engine, and of 2.2% for the autombile when tested on the above test routes.
Technical Paper

Wear Mechanisms in Moderate Temperature Gasoline Engine Service

1986-02-01
860374
The mechanism of overhead valve train wear in moderate to low temperature service was studied using a modified fired V-D test and a motored V-D cam and cam-follower rig. High wear and Sow wear used oils from the fired test gave the correct relative wear in the motored test, indicating the motored test is a valid tool for studying wear mechanisms. Key factors affecting valve train wear were isolated and selectively introduced in a series of motored engine tests. Results from this study showed the expected increase in wear with a decrease in viscosity of unformulated lubricants. Added zinc diaikyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) reduced wear in a low viscosity lubricant and a used oil as anticipated. A high detergent, high wear oil, in an unused state, did not produce significant wear in the motored test even if all of the ZDDP was removed. Significant wear resulted only after exhaust gases (simulated blowby) were fed into the motored engine sump containing the high wear oil.
Technical Paper

FORMULATION OF LOWER PHOSPHORUS PASSENGER CAR OILS

1986-02-01
860373
This paper describes the results of a research program to evaluate the effect of lowering zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) content on engine oil performance. The automotive industry is concerned that engine oil composition may have an adverse effect on exhaust catalytic converter efficiency and has therefore called for more research to develop engine oils that will promote catlyst/engine oil compatibility. An apparently simple solution is to reduce ZDDP content to a level that allows satisfactory catalyst efficiency. The effects of lowering the ZDDP content have been evaluated in terms of wear, oxidation and bearing corrosion performance. It has been demonstrated that in laboratory engines and rig tests by quantifying the influence of lubricant composition on performance, engine oils can be formulated at lower phosphorus levels (0.08% wt.) to meet the performance needs of modern passenger cars in the United States, Europe and Japan.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Contact Face Seals

1986-02-01
860381
A forward integration in time analysis that traces dynamic response of a face seal in five degrees of freedom is developed. Both rotating and stationary types of seal rings are considered, The analysis accounts for Coulomb friction at both the seal interface and the secondary seal. Compression of the carbon element in axial and angular modes is also included. Interface fluid-film effects (stiffness, damping, viscous shear, load) are applied whenever face separation occurs. The analytical treatment was designed to produce a computer code that can be used efficiently as a design and/or diagnostic tool. Several examples of the use of the analysis are presented, and general conclusions regarding face seal performance are deduced as a result of the analysis.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Valve Temperatures and Strain in a Firing Engine

1986-02-01
860356
Engine valves must operate in engines with very low failure rates. Long-term durability testing is expensive. This cost could be reduced by running only a final successful proof test, provided adequate data existed to demonstrate that potential life and failure modes have been identified and eliminated by short-term tests and analysis. This approach was applied to a 1983 DDA Model 4-53 engine valve. The results are used to estimate valve life and, further, to estimate the effects of tolerance variations on valve life. The techniques used to determine valve temperatures and strains at nominal and unusual operating conditions in firing engines are presented. The experimental study shows that combustion strains and closing strains are caused by two different loading conditions which affect different portions of the valve head, and also shows how these loads vary with their governing parameters. The theoretical basis for these observations and trends is also presented.
Technical Paper

A Method for Determining Optimum Crankshaft Oil-Hole Location

1986-02-01
860357
A method for determining the optimum location of oil-feed holes in crankshaft journals is described. The method is applied to the 92 series Detroit Diesel Allison Division (DDAD) engines. On an average, the minimum oil-film thickness of the main bearings was increased 83% by relocating the oil holes. A qualitative verification of the results was obtained by a coolant-contamination test. The revised crankshaft was used in the MY1985 production of the engine.
Technical Paper

Agricultural Vehicle Electronics - A New Hitch Control

1986-02-01
860479
The evolution of the agricultural mechanization has transformed the tractor from a simple tractive device into a more sophisticated machine to be matched with a wide variety of specific implements. The part allowing the control of the implement position and therefore its proper operation is the hitch lifting system. To increase the accuracy and the functionality of this system, up to now hydraulically or mechanically driven, and to reduce also the installation, adjustment and operating problems an electronically controlled system has been developed. The electronic system is based on a microprocessor unit which either provides to elaborate the signals supplied by suitable position and tractive force sensors and to fulfil, on the base of pre-set strategies, the operator requirements by means of proper actuators. Moreover the electronic unit can, at the same time, display to the operator the working parameter of the implement.
Technical Paper

Poisoning of Zirconia Exhaust Oxygen Sensors by Silica

1986-02-01
860478
The performance of Zirconia Exhaust Oxygen Sensors can be altered by several poisons. Silica produced by the oxidation of volatile silicones is one of the most severe poisons and can affect both the exhaust side of the sensor and the air reference side. This paper presents an overview of the subject of silica poisoning including field observations of silica poisoning, the mechanism of the poisoning, test techniques to evaluate silicone bearing materials and sensor poisoning sensitivity. Some data on improving resistance to poisoning is also presented.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties/High Ductility from Aluminum Permanent Mold Castings

1986-02-01
860554
The ability of aluminum castings to develop above-average levels of mechanical properties with high elongations is dependent on many factors. Alloy selection and casting quality are of utmost importance, but the method of casting is equally significant since the rate and pattern of solidification must be rapid and progressive if optimum results are to be obtained. An experimental program was recently conducted to determine mechanical property capabilities of several high strength alloys when cast by the vacuum permanent mold process.
Technical Paper

Material Technology Development Applied to Rotary Engine at Mazda

1986-02-01
860560
New material and processing technologies were developed for main components of the rotary engine to establish its reliability and durability. The components discussed in this paper are the rotor housing, side housing, and sealing elements. Also described are the material and processing technologies which resolved problems about their strength, rigidity, wear, etc.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Evaluation of Castings with Defects

1986-02-01
860555
Recently, fracture mechanics has been applied to the fatigue strength evaluation of components with casting defects. Such defects are usually equated with cracks, while actual defects have various shapes from spherical to needle. Consequently this equating with cracks is not always valid. This paper shows that the test results for three casting alloys do not agree with the estimated strength based on the above replacement. Then a new method is investigated, in which the following points are considered. 1. Calculating K-value with a 3-dimensional model. 2. Correcting the stress range according to the mean stress level. 3. Using the effective defect size. 4. Correcting the Kth-value according to the defect end curvature. The estimated strength by the new method agrees well with the test results.
Technical Paper

The ZA Die Casting Alloys

1986-02-01
860556
New high performance ZA casting alloys (ZA-8, 2A-12 & ZA-27) provide superior mechanical properties which designers can apply using die casting technology. This paper is intended to assist the automotive industry and their suppliers to better understand the capabilities and property advantage of the new alloys for new product designs. Reviewed are the general properties of the ZA alloy family, their die casting characteristics and several examples where ZA die castings have lowered manufacturing costs and/or improved product performance. Included are recent automotive developments.
Technical Paper

By-Pass Lube Oil Filtration

1986-02-01
860547
This paper presents the results of measurements to determine the effect of contaminant particle size on wear in lubricated systems, intended to increase understanding of the needs of lube-oil filtration systems for engines and transmissions. The results indicate that component wear rate is independent of contamination size when particles down to at least 3 µm are present. By-pass filtration theory is used to explain why current filtration systems are unable to remove contamination this small and that an alternative is needed if oil and component lives are to be extended beyond current levels. Test results are included which confirm this conclusion and show that because its performance does not deteriorate during its life, centrifugal filtration is a viable alternative.
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