A generalized analytical model of an airbag inflation system has been developed and integrated into the CAL3D occupant dynamics simulation program. The new model allows for tabular input of mass flow rate and gas temperature to represent the inflator, and it accounts for airbag material stretch and airbag gas leakage. With this new model, the CAL3D program can be applied to evaluate the occupant protection performance of the majority of airbag inflation systems of practical interest. A separate gas dynamics analysis is also developed for generating the mass flow rate and gas temperature data for representing a pyrotechnic inflator, either when a tank test of the actual inflator is available or when a particular inflation characteristic is desired.
This classification system tabulates the properties of vulcanized rubber materials (natural rubber, reclaimed rubber, synthetic rubbers, alone or in combination) that are intended for, but not limited to, use in rubber products for automotive applications. NOTE 1: The SAE Committee on Automotive Rubber Specifications (CARS) has the sole responsibility for SAE J200. CARS Works closely with and receives input from ASTM Subcommittee D11.30 on Classification of Rubber Compounds with the goal to keep SAE J200 and ASTM D 2000 technically equivalent. Candidate materials presented for development of new tables or for inclusion in Tables A1 or A2 of SAE J200 or Table X1.1 of ASTM D 2000 shall be initiated with the SAE CARS Committee. The procedure to be followed is detailed in Appendix C of SAE J200. NOTE 2: This document may serve many of the needs of other industries in much the same manner as SAE numbered steels.
This specification defines the requirements for a grooved clamp coupling, flanges and seal suitable for joining high pressure and high temperature ducting in aircraft bleed air systems. The rigid coupling joint assembly, hereafter referred to as "the joint", shall operate within the temperature range of -65 - +1200°F.
The thermal energy transferred to noncombusting gases by a spark at pressures from 1 to 7 atmospheres was measured using a pressure-rise calorimeter. The energy transfer efficiency (from electrical to thermal energy) was determined for conventional coil ignition systems, a plasma jet ignitor, and an ultra-short pulse (USP) ignitor. For the coil systems, the efficiency was strongly dependent on pressure and gap size, but weakly dependent on the type of spark plug. The efficiencies varied from 5% to 65%, with increases in pressure and gap size giving higher values. Electrode diameter and gas composition also had an effect on the efficiency. For a constant current, variable duration discharge system, the efficiency decreased by a factor of three as the energy increased from 12 to 75 mJ. The efficiency of the USP (breakdown discharge) system was slightly higher than for a conventional coil system.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) sockets, universal sockets, box wrenches and torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12-point fasteners conforming to the requirement of AS870, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.
Restricted hardenability steels have been in use for some time but the specific restrictions for a particular grade depend upon customer needs and vary from mill to mill. Such steels are desirable to provide more controlled heat treatment response and dimensional control for critical parts. Because of increasing interest in steels with restricted hardenability, the SAE Iron and Steel Technical Committee directed Division 8 to prepare a set of standard steels with restricted hardenability. In 1993, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) adopted the twelve SAE restricted hardenability steels and added ten more. SAE decided to include in SAE J1868 the additional 10 steels. In general, steels with restricted hardenability (RH steels) will exhibit a hardness range not greater than 5 HRC at the initial position on the end-quench hardenability bar and not greater than 65% of the hardness range for standard H-band steels (see SAE J1268) in the "inflection" region.
This SAE Recommended Practice defines conditions for evaluating the compatibility of vehicle fuel tanks and filler pipes with fuel dispensing facilities equipped with standard (non-vapor recovery) configuration as well as vapor recovery type nozzles. It applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and light-duty trucks 4536 kg (10,000 lb) maximum GVW. It includes a technique for filling a tank full that can be used to establish a reference condition for other tests which require starting with a full tank.
All carbon and alloy H-band steels are shown, along with their corresponding minimum and maximum hardenability limits, for which sufficient hardenability data have been established and for grades which use the standard end-quench test. As hardenability data are accumulated for other grades, this SAE Standard will be revised to include such grades.
This SAE Recommended Practice incorporates recommended dimensions for flywheels for use with single bearing power generators in the range of 10-500 kW, operating at speeds of 1000-1800 rpm. Driving torque, fastener strength, and rotative speeds shall be consistent with good design practice.
This standard describes stand-alone windshear warning system comprised of a windshear warning computer and associated cockpit displays. The system uses data pertaining to aircraft movement with respect to air movement to detect and annunciate a windshear condition. As an option, it may also provide instrument guidance to the crew indicating optimum pitch to endure the windshear encounter.
This standard includes specific requirements necessary to support flight data recording and other flight data acquisition needs. Design details necessary to ensure interchangeability of equipment in a standard aircraft installation is included.