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Technical Paper

SUPERCHARGERS AND SUPERCHARGING ENGINES

1920-01-01
200007
If at great altitudes air is supplied to the carbureter of an engine at sea-level pressure, the power developed becomes approximately the same as when the engine is running at sea level. The low atmospheric pressure and density at great altitudes offer greatly reduced resistance to high airplane speeds; hence the same power that will drive a plane at a given speed at sea level will drive it much faster at great altitudes and with approximately the same consumption of fuel per horsepower-hour. Supercharging means forcing in a charge of greater volume than that normally drawn into the cylinders by the suction of the pistons. Superchargers usually take the form of a mechanical blower or pump and the various forms of supercharger are mentioned and commented upon. Questions regarding the best location for the carbureter in supercharged engines are then considered.
Technical Paper

ALUMINUM PISTON DESIGN

1920-01-01
200006
The two broad divisions of aluminum pistons from a thermal standpoint are those designed to conduct the heat from the head into the skirt and thence into the cylinder walls, and those designed to partly insulate the skirt from the heat of the piston head. Pistons of the first type seem logical for heavy-duty engines; those of the second type are better suited for passenger-car engines. The objections of wear, piston slap, excessive oil consumption and crankcase dilution are stated as being the same for aluminum as for cast-iron pistons; and these statements are amplified. Piston slap is next considered and, as this can be overcome by using proper clearance, pistons of the second design tend to make this condition easier to meet. Many tests show that when too much oil is thrown into the cylinder bores, tight-fitting pistons and special rings will not completely overcome excessive oil consumption.
Technical Paper

JAPANNING PRACTICE

1920-01-01
200034
An analysis of japanning practice as a systematized industrial operation is presented as the result of an investigation. The nature of japans is discussed and an outline given of how the apparently contradictory requirements that japans must be weatherproof, somewhat flexible, sufficiently thick to be lasting, possess enough hardness to prevent excessive scratching under ordinary service conditions and take on a brilliant finish, can be fulfilled in an ordinary industrial plant without undue expenditure, so as to accomplish the original and primary objects of applying a finish to metal parts to prevent them from too great deterioration and supply a pleasing appearance to the finished product. Adequate provision for securing a uniform product is essential. The details of this are discussed. Three ways of applying japan are explained. The considerations involved in cleaning the metal and baking japan are enumerated at some length and the methods are described.
Technical Paper

RELATION OF TIRES TO TRUCK EFFICIENCY

1920-01-01
200033
The discussion is largely in regard to the ability of a truck to deliver merchandise economically under a given set of external conditions. The matter of truck tire equipment is reviewed in the light of recent experiences of many operators and service men. The general functions of tires, securing traction, cushioning the mechanism and the load and protecting the road, are elaborated and six primary and seven secondary reasons given for the use of pneumatic tires on trucks within the debatable field of 1½ to 3½-ton capacity. The deciding factors in tire choice, those affecting time and those affecting cost, are stated and commented upon, the discussion next being focused on how tires affect these factors. Considerations relating to both truck and tire repairs are then reviewed.
Technical Paper

CURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES

1920-01-01
200035
The paper surveys the economic and engineering aspects of the automotive industry, so that engineers can align themselves with its future development. Better performance and longer life due to improved design and materials distinguish the 1920 car from its predecessors. One of the healthiest signs in the industry is the uniform determination of practically every manufacturer to improve the quality of his product. The designer has been forced to extend himself in getting the highest possible output from the smallest possible units. This trend is very noticeable. Conditions relating to prices, the return to peace-time production, the potential demand for cars and the present supply, and the probable improvements in cars are then reviewed, the thought then passing to a somewhat detailed discussion of detachable-head engines.
Technical Paper

A TRACTOR ENGINE TEST

1920-01-01
200032
A four-cylinder 4 by 5-in. truck and tractor engine, designed for either kerosene or gasoline fuel and having the very low volumetric compression ratio of 3.36, was used. Only by suitable adjustments was it found possible to make it show a fuel consumption as low as 0.67 lb. per b.hp.-hr.; but with a slight variation in power and only a different carbureter adjustment the fuel consumption at 600 r.p.m. increased to about 1.2 lb., or 70 per cent, emphasizing the importance of knowing what constitutes the best engine adjustment and of disseminating such knowledge. The engine and its dimensions, the experimental apparatus and the method of testing are fully described and discussed, the results being presented in charts showing performance curves. These are described, analyzed and the results interpreted.
Technical Paper

DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC-TIRED TRUCKS

1920-01-01
200031
After stressing the importance of transportation, the possible uses of the motor truck are considered. The increased cushioning and traction obtained from pneumatic truck tires accomplish faster transportation, economy of operation, less depreciation of fragile load, easier riding, less depreciation of roads and lighter-weight trucks. These six advantages are then discussed separately and various data to substantiate the claims made are presented. Following detailed consideration of transportation and operation economies, and depreciation of loads and roads, the practicability of pneumatic tires is elaborated, and wheels, rims and tire-accessory questions are studied. The four main factors bearing upon truck design for pneumatic tires are stated and discussed; emergency equipment for tire repair is outlined and a new six-wheel pneumatic-tired truck is described.
Technical Paper

DECREASING UNSPRUNG WEIGHT BY THE USE OF ALUMINUM

1920-01-01
200030
Stating the desirability of reducing unsprung weight in motor vehicles as a recognized fact and that 75 of 100 engineers interviewed favor such reduction, the particular advantages resulting are given as improved riding qualities, economy in tire wear and better acceleration. Mathematical deductions to establish the most desirable ratio of sprung to unsprung weight are not attempted, the intention being rather to state the reasons favoring lighter wheels and axles. Unsprung weight effects depend primarily upon the ratio of sprung to unsprung weight. No data determining the most desirable ratio are available, but an investigation of the proportional weight of the unsprung and sprung parts of good-riding-quality automobiles showed it to be about 1 to 3. By constructing the wheels and the axles of light metal it is possible to maintain such a ratio, assure good riding qualities and reduce the total weight.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR TESTING FROM THE USER'S STANDPOINT

1920-01-01
200028
To test tractors for results valuable to the user, the reliability, durability, power, economy and utility should be determined. Standard tests measuring tractor utility and reliability are impossible practically and durability tests would be an extensive project, but tractor and engine-power tests and tests of the amount of fuel required for doing a unit of work can easily be made. The University of Nebraska tests described were for belt and drawbar horsepower and miscellaneous testing for special cases. The four brake-horsepower tests adopted are stated. Tractor operating conditions are then reviewed. The drawbar horsepower tests include a 10-hr. test at the rated load of the tractor, with the governor set as in the first brake-horsepower test, and a series of short runs with the load increased for each until the engine is overloaded or the drive wheel slips excessively, to determine the maximum engine horsepower.
Technical Paper

DESIGN OF INTAKE MANIFOLDS FOR HEAVY FUELS

1920-01-01
200043
The adoption of the present system of feeding a number of cylinders in succession through a common intake manifold was based upon the idea that the fuel mixture would consist of air impregnated or carbureted with hydrocarbon vapor, but if the original designers of internal-combustion engines had supposed that the fuel would not be vaporized, existing instead as a more or less fine spray in suspension in the incoming air, it is doubtful that they would have had the courage to construct an engine with this type of fuel intake. That present fuel does not readily change to hydrocarbon vapor in the intake manifold is indicated by tables of vapor density of the different paraffin series of hydrocarbon compounds.
Technical Paper

ARTILLERY MOTORIZATION

1920-01-01
200029
Motorization, as developed during the war, is stated as the greatest single advance in military engineering since the fourteenth century. Excepting about 66 per cent of the 77-mm. guns in the combat division, all mobile weapons of the United States artillery are motorized and complete motorization has been approved. The history of artillery motorization is sketched and a tabulation given of the general mechanical development in artillery motor equipment to May, 1919. Caterpillar vehicle characteristics are next considered in detail, followed by ten specifically stated problems of design which are then discussed. Five primary factors affecting quantity production, successful construction and effective design, in applying the caterpillar tractor to military purposes, are then stated and commented upon. A table shows specifications of engines used by the Ordnance Department and three general specifications for replacing present engine equipment are made.
Technical Paper

DIRECT MULTIPLE-SPEED AUTOMOBILE REAR-AXLE DRIVES

1920-01-01
200041
The first car credited by the author as being equipped with two or more direct drives is the Sizaire-Naudin, in 1905. The transmissions of this car and of one embodying similar principles of gearing, brought out in 1909, are described and illustrated by diagrams. After the Sizaire-Naudin, the next double direct-drive transmission was the Pleukharp transmission axle, made in 1906, although the real ancestor of the present double-drive rear axles is the 1906 Pilain transmission; both are described and illustrated. Other early American and foreign forms are commented upon and diagrammed, including the Austin design, believed by the author to be the first to use a two-speed axle of the simplest and lightest possible type to provide two direct drives in connection with a separate gearset to give additional forward speeds and the reverse. Modern two-speed axles are reviewed, with critical comment and diagrams, and considerable discussion of gear ratios is included.
Technical Paper

SOME FACTORS OF ENGINE PERFORMANCE

1920-01-01
200042
A large number of tests were made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards, using aircraft engines. The complete analysis of these tests was conducted under the direction of the Powerplants Committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Many of the engines were of the same make, differing in compression ratio or dimensions. The testing program included determinations of the brake-horsepower at various speeds and altitudes, or air densities, and the friction power, or the power required to operate the engine with no fuel or ignition at various speeds and air densities, with normal operating conditions of oil, water and the like. Some tests included determination of the effect of change of mixture ratio and of air temperature, and of different oils. The difficulties caused by the necessity of using indirect methods to ascertain the effect of various factors are outlined. The test analyses and curves are presented.
Technical Paper

USE OF ALUMINUM IN PRESENT AND FUTURE MOTOR CARS

1920-01-01
200038
Although aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust, it was not until the early eighties that means were discovered for reducing it from its ores in such quantities and at such cost as to make it a commercial possibility. The world immediately began to find uses for this material. Two groups developed; one, assuming for aluminum properties that it did not possess, thought that it would in time replace all other metals; the other, which, reacting from the first-mentioned view due to failures and disappointments, thought it had little use. It was afterward realized that much research was necessary to make aluminum a really commercial metal. One of the main aims of the automobile engineer is to obtain lightness combined with proper strength. The paper deals with decreasing the weight of automobiles by more extended use of aluminum alloys. The physical properties of aluminum are described in considerable detail and its varied uses are enumerated.
Technical Paper

PLYWOOD AND ITS USES IN AUTOMOBILE CONSTRUCTION

1920-01-01
200037
For many years plywood has been used for such automobile parts as roofs and dash and instrument-boards, but it was not until the closing of the European war that the extent to which this material was used in automobile construction greatly increased. The sudden requirement of airplanes created a large demand for plywood which would withstand the severest weather conditions. Glues were perfected that enabled plywood to withstand 8 hr. of boiling or 10 days of soaking in water without separation of the plies. Plywood as an engineering material is discussed. It is then compared in considerable detail with ordinary boards and also with metals and pulp boards, statistics and illustrations being given. The molding of plywood is considered with especial reference to employing plywood for surfaces having compound curvatures, and the limiting factors in the use of plywood for this purpose are mentioned.
Technical Paper

FLEXIBILITY IN ORGANIZATION

1920-01-01
200036
The only direction in which flexibility of an organization can be considered is that of successful progress. Flexibility uncontrolled is liable to lead to retrogression instead of progression. During the war, every available unit of man-power was called into use, and all specialized intelligence was stretched almost to the breaking point. This was particularly true of the intelligence in the automotive industry. Demands were made in connection with the airplane, tanks, agricultural tractor and submarine chasers, as well as the more stabilized automobile and trucks. The most skilful men naturally gravitated to the most difficult work, in the problems surrounding the airplane and the tank, and, while in general there were not nearly enough men, the scarcity of skill was more noticeable in the older branches of the industry. It was there that the necessity for a flexible organization demonstrated itself. The first necessity was a rigid base from which progress could be made.
Technical Paper

DESIGN FACTORS FOR AIRPLANE RADIATORS

1920-01-01
200026
The paper defines properties that describe the performance of a radiator; states the effects on these properties of external conditions such as flying speed, atmospheric conditions and position of the radiator on the airplane; enumerates the effects of various features of design of the radiator core; and compares methods that have been proposed for controlling the cooling capacity at altitudes. Empirical equations and constants are given, wherever warranted by the information available.
Technical Paper

FLYING AN AIRPLANE ENGINE ON THE GROUND

1920-01-01
200027
The very complete laboratory tests of airplane engines at ground level were of little aid in predicting performance with the reduced air pressures and temperatures met in flight. On the other hand, it was well-nigh impossible in a flight test to carry sufficient apparatus to measure the engine performance with anything like the desired completeness. The need clearly was to bring altitude conditions to the laboratory where adequate experimental apparatus was available and, to make this possible, the altitude chamber of the dynamometer laboratory at the Bureau of Standards was constructed. The two general classes of engine testing are to determine how good an engine is and how it can be improved, the latter including research and development work.
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