The cost of motor-truck operation is divided into fixed charges and operating expenses per mile. Assuming that a carefully trained driver has been obtained, the problem becomes one of securing better results. As a means toward accomplishing this, bonus systems are discussed and the development of a bonus system is analyzed mathematically and illustrated by charts. A typical application of the bonus scale is then made in detail, followed by full consideration of charge rates and combined time and mileage charges. The features involved are illustrated in the charts presented, an exposition of these being given in the text.
A short account of the discovery and early development of the oils in the Appalachian Field is followed by a description of several oil-testing instruments and of modern refinery practice with diagrams and drawings. The utilization of oil-shale rock and its probable value in supplementing the diminishing supply of crude petroleum are commented on. The conservation of all petroleum products is urged.
The factors included in the commercial airplane problem are the practical use that can be made of airplanes, the volume of business that can be expected, the necessary changes from present military types to make an efficient commercial airplane and what the future holds for this new means of transportation. The requirements for passenger transportation, airmail and general express service, are first discussed in detail, consideration then being given to other possibilities such as aerial photography and map-making, the aerial transportation of mineral ores, sport and miscellaneous usage. Changes in the present equipment of engines and airplanes to make them suitable for commercial use are outlined, and special features of aerial navigation, landing fields and legal questions are mentioned.
Airships were not generally considered important before the war. Many thought they would never become practical as a means of transportation. The proper conception of what an airship is having first been explained, the three principal ways in which progress has been made are specified as weight-saving, improvement of overall propulsion efficiency and decreasing resistance and increase in size. The last mentioned feature is discussed in some detail, the conclusion being that practically anything is possible, given an airship of sufficient size. The future needs of airship development are then considered, such as more suitable engines, multiple powerplants, dependability, the development of better fabric and better landing and hangar facilities.
The nineteen months preceding Nov. 11, 1918, constituted the most far-reaching educational period in the history of the United States. The war being over, both opportunity and danger are ahead. Automotive manufacturers, engineers and educators have large responsibilities in post-war industrial rehabilitation. A frank discussion of several prime demands is presented. After outlining the achievements of the war period, the lessons thereof are enumerated, special emphasis being placed upon cooperation and teamwork, and the automotive manufacturers urged to give consideration to the permanent and stable establishment of their business and product. Attention is called to the part universities can and should take in practical service, in conducting automotive engineering courses, giving public instruction and furthering good roads development and highways transport.
Whatever may be the conclusion of business men and engineers as to the fuel problem, dealing with it from the point of view of the engineer as a service man nothing further is needed than that the problem is before us. The paper deals with engine troubles that have been found to demand the greatest amount of attention from farmers. Tractors are not built for or operated by engineers. No quantity production is likely to be attained for some time to come with anything but the commonest forms of cylinder and other features. This judgment is based entirely on the limitations in upkeep knowledge of the average user. The four-cylinder tractor engine seems to be rapidly becoming standard, due to its simplicity and the familiarity of most farmers with this type. Consideration is given, topic by topic, to important parts of the tractor engine and the relation of fuel to difficulties discussed.
The necessity for a powerful heavy-duty truck with power transmitted through all four wheels was apparent shortly after the United States became involved in the war. An intensive study of the four-wheel-drive situation finally resulted in the design of the Ordnance four-wheel-drive truck and the modified form known as the artillery wheeled tractor. Seven factors influencing the preparation of the specifications are stated and discussed. The determination of proper gear ratios is analyzed. The considerations leading to the adoption of the universal-joint type of driving-shaft are mentioned and its application commented upon. Ten specific points of internal interchangeability of the mechanism are enumerated.
Manufacturers of carbureters and ignition devices are called upon to assist in overcoming troubles caused by the inclusion of too many heavy fractions in automobile fuels. So far as completely satisfactory running is concerned, the difficulty of the problem with straight petroleum distillates is caused by the heaviest fraction present in appreciable quantity. The problems are involved in the starting, carburetion, distribution and combustion. An engine is really started only when all its parts have the same temperatures as exist in normal running, and when it accelerates in a normal manner. Two available methods, (a) installing a two-fuel carbureter, using a very volatile fuel to start and warm-up the engine, and (b) heating the engine before cranking by a burner designed to use the heavier fuel, are described and discussed.