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Technical Paper

Commercial Possibilities of Rubber-Electrodeposition Process

1927-01-01
270026
ACTUAL production-equipment for making rubber goods by the anode process has not been installed and studied to yield accurate quantitative data, but laboratory work has been begun in Akron, Ohio, and although some of the facts learned cannot be discussed by the author at this time, enough general indications have been secured to lead to belief that widely varied and valuable applications of the process will be made. Factors that influence the commercial application of any process are enumerated and the properties of rubber that the technologist usually studies to determine its suitability for specific uses are listed. Thorough comparison of anode rubber with the milled product has not been made but confirmatory experimental evidence supports belief that the process must yield stronger and tougher material than do current methods of production. The reasons for this are explained.
Technical Paper

Recent Development in Aircraft Powerplants

1927-01-01
270027
NAVAL aviation confined its activities to training and to coastal patrol during the World War. This limited operation was necessitated by the small amount of materiel suitable for operation over water, the strategical and geographical situation which determined the nature of the naval operations, the very limited performance of seaplanes of that period, and the fact that warships were not equipped for handling aircraft or prepared for aircraft cooperation. At the end of the War, naval aviation was made part and parcel of the fleet. Fighting airplanes are required to gain and maintain control of the air. Observation airplanes are used for short-range scouting and also for controlling long-range fire of capital ships by reporting the fall of shot to the ship by radio. For torpedo and bombing work, the first requirement is large weight-carrying capacity.
Technical Paper

Air-Meter for Engine Research

1927-01-01
270032
ENGINE power is an expression that has a wide range of meaning. In its most fundamental sense, it is the capacity for doing work developed in the engine cylinders and is limited by the breathing capacity of the engine, that is, its rate of air consumption. The author describes a positive rotary-displacement measuring apparatus designed to overcome the objections often raised to the use of the customary type of air-meter in the induction system. The contribution describes a method for attaining greater accuracy or simplicity of operation evolved in the course of an investigation, and the method described is easily applicable by others who may have similar problems requiring solution.
Technical Paper

Oil-Flow through Crankshaft and Connecting-Rod Bearings

1927-01-01
270033
THE paper is limited to a discussion of the factors governing flow of the lubricant through the crankshaft and connecting-rod bearings. Apparatus for measuring the flow is described, and the fact that it permits measurement under operating conditions is emphasized. Results obtained by increasing main and connecting-rod bearing clearances are enumerated first. The paper then treats of the influence of engine-speed. Centrifugal force is shown to have a major influence on flow at high speeds, but it is pointed out that the magnitude of this influence can be controlled to a considerable extent by the radial location of the oil-hole in the crankpin. The fact that the effect of changes in pressure differs with differences in engine-speed and oil-flow is commented upon, and a possible explanation for this condition is advanced. Some results which at first appeared surprising were obtained in static tests in which the flow was measured at various crank-angles.
Technical Paper

The Quantitative Effect of Engine Carbon on Detonation

1927-01-01
270031
METHODS adopted and results obtained in an investigation of the quantitative effect of engine carbon on detonation are described, together with the standard methods of detonation and carbon-deposition measurement that were used. It is stated that carbon deposition is believed to influence detonation in proportion to the greatest thickness of deposit over any considerable area of the combustion-chamber surface. Since this is indicated, it is suggested that detonation tests should supersede gravimetric carbon-deposition tests, inasmuch as the objection to carbon is because of its detonation-inducing characteristics, which are governed by the character and the thickness of the deposit. The tests were made with a four-cylinder, model DU-8 Waukesha motor-truck engine of 4½-in. bore and 6¼-in. stroke, direct-coupled to a Sprague Electric dynamometer. A crankcase jacket permitted control of the oil temperature.
Technical Paper

A Method of Measuring the Cushioning Quality of Tires

1927-01-01
270021
TIRES of high shock-absorbing capacity greatly reduce the blows delivered to roadways by heavy vehicles and the reactions on the vehicles; they also absorb most effectively the shocks in a vertical direction that are the cause of the greatest discomfort to passengers. With a view to making a laboratory study of these shock-absorbing properties of tires, an instrument called a bounce-recorder has been devised and is described. This instrument records the paths followed by tires in passing over obstacles placed in their way. From these records, the vertical acceleration of a tire at any point of its flight can be determined, the purpose of doing so being twofold, namely, to develop an accurate and fairly rapid means of ascertaining the relative shock-absorbing capacities of tires by the acceleration method and to find out whether load-deflection tests made on the Olsen testing-machine could be used for the same purpose.
Technical Paper

The Torque-Equalized Brake

1927-01-01
270020
BRAKE action extends from the foot-pedal through various connections and devices to the point of contact of the braked wheel on the ground but, although brake-development work has been extensive for that portion of the brake mechanism which extends from the foot-pedal up to the point of application of brake pressure, the author says that beyond this point practically no improvement has been made. He says further that a study of brakes and the retarding forces they exert on the road surface reveals the primary cause of brake troubles, and then analyzes the design of an efficient braking-system for automobiles, first outlining the ideally perfect mechanism without regard to mechanical limitations.
Technical Paper

The Constantinesco Torque-Converter

1927-01-01
270019
THE purpose of the mechanism described is to produce an instant and automatically variable torque that is always equal to the resistance encountered while the primary driving engine maintains its speed and torque nearly constant. The principle of operation is illustrated by reference to the action of a stick weighted with a ball at one end and suspended freely by a string at the other so that it can swing as a pendulum. Interference with the swing of the pendulum at any point on the stick results in a transference of part of the inertia force of the ball to other parts of the stick and also alters the amplitude and rate of vibration of all parts. At the same time, pressure is set up at the point of interference. The pressure varies in magnitude with the inertia and is proportional to the change of speed in a unit of time.
Technical Paper

The Electrodeposition of Rubber

1927-01-01
270025
AFTER giving a brief description of the nature of rubber latex and a review of investigations made in Europe of its physico-chemical properties, the author tells of experiments made in Rochester to develop a method for the electrodeposition of rubber particles. These proved that the process was possible but the problem of producing a coating containing all the ingredients requisite in a compound suitable for vulcanizing remained to be solved. The nature of the rubber particles and of rubber after coagulation of the particles is described and the method of rubber-plating as developed is explained. It is stated that the deposit can be built up almost indefinitely and at a very rapid rate; that the composition remains substantially unchanged during coating, and that the current efficiency is remarkably high.
Technical Paper

A Four-Speed Internal-Underdrive Transmission

1927-01-01
270018
ALTHOUGH the enormous demand for automobiles has been met with continual improvement in performance, economy, comfort, and appearance of the vehicle, the development of the transmission has lagged badly for more than a decade. Car-ability has been handicapped by the limitations of the three-ratio gearbox. Notwithstanding that the added car-flexibility, economy and smoothness that result from increasing the number of ratios between the engine and the axle have long been appreciated by engineers, the short-comings of conventional four-speed transmissions, friction drives and two-speed rear-axles having double ring-gears and pinions are many, and the first cost and lack of over-all efficiency of the gasoline-electric drive have prevented their greater use in passenger-car and truck service.
Technical Paper

Cast Iron in Its Relation to the Automotive Industry

1927-01-01
270024
CAST iron is purchased on a basis of price instead of quality, according to the author, who says that this has depreciated the qualities of the material generally and caused engineers to look askance at its application. Combined with such factors is the influence of misinformation about cast iron that has been widely broadcast. Questions regarding the design of patterns and cheaper raw-materials have involved the foundrymen in controversial discussion concerning the influence of various elements to the detriment of the economic condition of the iron industry as well as that of the consumer of castings. Due to the lessening of the consumption of cast iron, the foundry world has inaugurated research to better the quality of cast iron, not only through investigations of raw materials but also by improvement in melting practice.
Technical Paper

Why Does a Car “Pivot”?

1927-01-01
270022
REMARKING the difficulty of explaining logically the strange phenomenon known as the “pivoting” of a car, the author, after presenting citations of actual experiences with various combinations of front-wheel and rear-wheel braking and their tendencies to cause a car to pivot, analyzes pivoting and explains its causes under (a) “dry-roadway” and (b) “skiddy-roadway” conditions. Concerning (a), the author states that when two-thirds of the braking force of a four-wheel-brake system is distributed to the rear wheels, the preponderance of the stopping or braking force will remain active to the rear of the center of gravity of the car, causing a so-called “drag-anchor” effect to counterbalance what is termed the “spin effect,” and no dry-roadway pivot can occur. Since the friction available between the roadway and the tires is comparatively small on a skiddy roadway, the retarding forces at the two sets of wheels should be utilized to their utmost.
Technical Paper

Tires as a Cause of Shimmy

1927-01-01
270023
THE author enumerates and describes various inter-related movements of the front end of the car that are commonly known as automobile shimmy. A long list is given of experiments made in an attempt to correct the trouble. These did not produce consistent results but showed that caster angle acts as a considerable influence, while the influence of camber and toe-in seems to be more on tire wear than on shimmy. Lubrication of springs and conditions affecting the free motion of the steering pivots have some influence but the author sees imperfections in the tires as fundamental causes. The nature of the road is also important, particularly of concrete roads having regularly spaced depressions at joints. Some of the tire imperfections are described and blame is placed on the tire makers for being less thorough in their methods of testing and inspection than are car manufacturers.
Technical Paper

The English Light-Car and Why

1927-01-01
270013
ECONOMIC and other conditions that favored and practically forced the development of the light car in England, and the history of that development, are dealt with at length by the author. He recalls the light cars of the pioneer days of the automobile and then the putting on of weight about 1898 to increase reliability and riding comfort. He comments on the reaction that resulted in the advent of the cyclecar in 1911 and its quick demise because of its failure to perform satisfactorily. The keen interest of the public, however, indicated that a big business could be done in a light, efficient, cheap motor-car if it could be produced in a practical form. Genuinely light cars minus the crudities of the cyclecar began making their appearance and quickly “caught on,” due to the tax on gasoline, low selling prices, and automobile-club competitions giving the public confidence in these vehicles.
Technical Paper

Production of Gasoline Substitutes from Coal

1927-01-01
270010
NO danger exists of the imminent exhaustion of the petroleum reserves of the United States, as is shown by a committee report published early in 1926 by the American Petroleum Institute, from which figures are given in the following paper. It is reasonable to assume that a sufficient supply of oil will be available for all purposes beyond the time when the demand therefor will be reduced by more efficient use of petroleum products or by the production of substitutes for them. The possibility of a future shortage of petroleum fuel suitable for automotive engines, however, and of the production of substitutes to avoid such a contingency, is receiving considerable attention in America and Europe. The author presents a general review of the situation and the status of research in the manufacture of gasoline substitutes from coal, of which enormous quantities remain unmined in this Country.
Technical Paper

Possibilities of the Counterbalanced Connecting-Rod

1927-01-01
270017
IN considering the possibilities of the counterbalanced connecting-rod, the author points out that (a) every automobile engine is dynamically unbalanced; (b) inertia unbalance of two, four and eight-cylinder engines can be eliminated by counterbalancing the connecting-rods; (c) such engines so balanced have a better balance than the conventional six-cylinder engine; (d) the design of counterbalanced connecting-rods is practicable and adds little to the cost of the engine; and (e) if a counterbalanced connecting-rod is used, the single-cylinder engine can be as well balanced as the conventional six-cylinder engine by using the geared-balancer that is described. The fundamentals relating to the foregoing statements are analyzed mathematically. The geared-balancer proposed by the author consists of a pair of small shafts geared to run at crankshaft speed in opposite directions, each shaft carrying a pair of weights that produce a rotating centrifugal-couple.
Technical Paper

Chains for Front-End Drives

1927-01-01
270016
TOOTHED and friction-gearing are said by the author to be the two distinct classes of power transmission between two shafts, and the silent chain he describes is in the toothed-gearing class according to his statement, since it has a fixed speed-ratio and causes a bearing pressure that varies almost directly with the power transmitted. It is argued that, because of its elasticity and the peculiar method of contact with the teeth of the sprocket, the silent chain constitutes a medium that absorbs shocks and variations in angular velocity, and has a bearing action similar to that of a belt. The improved silent chain is made of stamped, arch-shaped link-plates assembled in alternate succession and joined by pins that act as bearings. The spacing of the pins forms the “pitch” of the chain. When assembled, the chain can be considered a flexible gear or rack.
Technical Paper

Timing-Gear Development

1927-01-01
270015
AFTER outlining the present status of the forms of drive for timing-gear trains, the author describes modifications of gear design made by the company he represents to overcome noise that involve lengthening gear-teeth for a given pitch. Various modifications in this regard were made and one having 16-pitch teeth with 12-pitch length had 10,000 miles of use in fourth speed without developing excessive wear. A further development resulting from experiments was the use of case-hardened timing-gears for motorcoach engines, such usage being thought to provide the most extreme conditions. Characteristics of so-called anti-stub gears are stated and predictions are made as to the future of timing-gear practice.
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