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Technical Paper

Radial O-Ring Insertion Force Optimization for Functionality and Assembly

2017-03-28
2017-01-0326
When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance that must be struck between O-ring function and the ease of assembly. If design parameters are not properly controlled or considered it is possible to design an O-ring seal that would require assembly insertion forces that exceed acceptable ergonomic practices from a manufacturing standpoint. If designs are released into production with these high insertion forces manufacturing operators will struggle to assemble parts, creating opportunity for potential operator injury due to repetitive strain or CTD. In this study several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase to optimize both functionality and ease of assembly.
Technical Paper

Predicting Forming Limit Curve Using a New Ductile Failure Criterion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0312
Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. The proposed DFC treats localized necking as failure and critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. Under linear strain path assumption, a method to predict Forming Limit Curve (FLC) is derived from this DFC. With the help of predetermined effect functions, the method only needs a calibration at uniaxial tension. The approach was validated by predicting FLCs for sixteen different aluminum and steel sheet metal materials. Comparison shows that the prediction matches quite well with experimental observations in most cases.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Optimization of Variables in Hot Forming through FEA Simulations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0313
Automotive manufacturers around the world are pushing towards the goal of better safety from their vehicles without compromising on the fuel economy. One of the very successful efforts in this direction is the hot forming technique that has been around for 30 years since Saab used it for the first time in 1986. Finite element simulations for this technique are of paramount importance to identify and optimize the process; as the steels used in hot stamping are sensitive to certain variables when heated that would otherwise cause very few disturbances in a normal cold forming process. The major contributor to the high strength of the stamped part is the phase transformation that it undergoes during the hot forming process. This paper investigates and identifies critical parameters through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations.
Technical Paper

Characterization of 6XXX Series Aluminum Extrusions Using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique

2017-03-28
2017-01-0316
Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
Standard

Coupling Assembly, Hydraulic, Self-Sealing, Quick Disconnect

2017-03-28
WIP
AS25427A
This specification covers the detail requirements for aircraft hydraulic self-sealing quick disconnect couplings, for use in types I and II hydraulic systems (-65 °F to +275°F temperature range) as defined by Specification MIL-H-5440.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of CAN-Bus and FlexRay Protocols for In-Vehicle Communication

2017-03-28
2017-01-0017
Technological advances in automotive industry have resulted in an increased number of Electronic Control Units (ECU)s. These ECUs are used for sensing and controlling actuators in the modern vehicles. Various network protocols have been proposed to achieve scalable and reliable communication amonglarge number ECUs in modern vehicles.Various network protocols have been proposed for invehicle communication,such as Controlled Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnected Network (LIN), Media Oriented System Transport (MOST), and FlexRay. This study compares latency and reliability of CAN-Bus and FlexRay communication protocols. The HSC12 microcontroller is used to implement these protocols, and for secure communication data is encrypted.Our experimental results indicate that the CAN-Bus communication protocol is a better option for hard real-time systems and FlexRay protocol is appropriate for deterministic data transmission, e.g., priority-less message communication.
Technical Paper

Secure Boot Implementation for Hard Real-Time Powertrain System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1656
Vehicle Security means protecting potential threats, unintended malfunction and illegal tuning. In addition, it has become a more important issue on an automotive system as it is directly connected to the driver and pedestrian's life. Automotive industry significantly needs to enhance security policies to prevent attacks from hackers. Nevertheless, in some systems, performance still has to be considered at first when security functions are implemented. Especially, in case of Engine Management System (EMS), fast engine synchronization for starting should be considered as the first priority. This paper is intended to show an approach to design efficient secure boot implementation for EMS. At the beginning of this paper, the concept of secure boot is explained and several use cases are introduced according to execution modes, such as the foreground and background secure boot modes. As a next step, engine starting process by EMS is explained.
Technical Paper

Effects of Active Aerodynamic Wings on Handling Performance of High-Speed Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1592
In this research, active aerodynamic wings are investigated using numerical simulation in order to improve vehicle handling performance under emergency scenarios, such as tight cornering maneuvers at high speeds. Air foils are selected and analyzed to determine the basic geometric features of aerodynamic wings. Built upon the airfoil analysis, the 3-D aerodynamic wing model is developed. Then, the virtual aerodynamic wings are assembled with the 3-D vehicle model. The resulting 3-D geometry model is used for aerodynamic analysis based on numerical simulation using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The CFD-based simulation data and the vehicle dynamic model generated are combined to study the effects of active aerodynamic wings on handling performance of high-speed vehicles. The systematic numerical simulation method and achieved results may provide design guidance for the development of active aerodynamic wings for high-speed road vehicles.
Technical Paper

Pressure Ratio Influence on Exhaust Valve Flow Coefficients

2017-03-28
2017-01-0530
In one dimensional engine simulation software, flow losses over complex geometries such as valves and ports are described using flow coefficients. It is generally assumed that the pressure ratio over the valve has a negligible influence on the flow coefficient. However during the exhaust valve opening the pressure difference between cylinder and port is large which questions the accuracy of this assumption. In this work the influence of pressure ratio on the exhaust valve flow coefficient has been investigated experimentally in a steady-flow test bench. Two cylinder heads, designated A and B, from a Heavy-Duty engine with different valve shapes and valve seat angles have been investigated. The tests were performed with both exhaust valves open and with only one of the two exhaust valves open. The pressure ratio over the exhaust port was varied from 1.1:1 to 5:1. For case A1 with a single exhaust valve open, the flow coefficient decreased significantly with pressure ratio.
Technical Paper

Active Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension. Modeling and Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1561
Rollover prevention is one of the prominent priorities in vehicle safety and handling control. A promising alternative for roll angle cancellation is the active hydraulically interconnected suspension. This paper represents the analytical model of a closed circuit active hydraulically interconnected suspension system followed by the simulation. Passive hydraulically interconnected suspension systems have been widely discussed and studied up to now. This work specifically focuses on the active hydraulically interconnected suspension system. Equations of motion of the system are formalized first. The system consists of two separate subsystems that can be modeled independently and further combined for simulation. One of the two subsystems is 4 degrees of freedom half-car model which simulates vehicle lateral dynamics and vehicle roll angle response to lateral acceleration in particular.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Process to Improve Supplier’s Quality and Reduce Warranty

2017-03-28
2017-01-1604
The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing. Through statistics, a pilot study was conducted to correlate the selected variables to reduce warranty.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Different Methods of Using Waste Cooking Oil as Fuel in a Compression Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0876
Different methods to improve the performance of a WCO (waste cooking oil of sunflower) based mono cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine were investigated. Initially WCO was converted into its emulsion by emulsification process and tested as fuel. In the second phase, the engine intake system was modified to admit excess oxygen along with air to test the engine with WCO and WCO emulsion as fuels under oxygen enriched environment. In the third phase, the engine was modified to work in the dual fuel mode with hydrogen being used as the inducted fuel and either WCO or WCO emulsion used as the pilot fuel. All the tests were carried out at 100% and 40% of the maximum load (3.7 kW power output) at the rated speed of 1500 rpm. Engine data with neat diesel and neat WCO were used for comparison. WCO emulsion indicated considerable improvement in performance. The smoke and NOx values were noted to be less than neat WCO.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Two Methodologies for Lens Distortion Removal when EXIF Data is Unavailable

2017-03-28
2017-01-1422
Photogrammetry and the accuracy of a photogrammetric solution is reliant on the quality of photographs and the accuracy of pixel location within the photographs. A photograph with lens distortion can create inaccuracies within a photogrammetric solution. Due to the curved nature of a camera’s lens(s), the light coming through the lens and onto the image sensor can have varying degrees of distortion. There are commercially available software titles that rely on a library of known cameras, lenses, and configurations for removing lens distortion. However, to use these software titles the camera manufacturer, model, lens and focal length must be known. This paper presents two methodologies for removing lens distortion when camera and lens specific information is not available. The first methodology uses linear objects within the photograph to determine the amount of lens distortion present. This method will be referred to as the straight-line method.
Technical Paper

A High Energy Ignition System for EGR Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0675
Low pressure cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to suppress engine knocking is increasingly being used to downsize engines and increase the compression ratio to improve thermal efficiency. This study aims to develop an ignition system to extend the EGR limit and EGR operation area. The ignition system must be improved to enhance ignitability of a mixture of fuel and air. In this paper, we focus on ignition energy of the ignition coil and summarize experimental results on a test dyno obtained by using reinforced conventional ignition coil on the basis of ignition energy and engine speed. As engine speed (mixture flow velocity between ignition plug electrode-gap) and EGR ratio were increased, the secondary energy requirement of the ignition coil was increased. This increase was considered to be caused by an increase of mixture flow velocity at the plug gap and a decrease of laminar flame velocity as EGR ratio increased.
Technical Paper

Effect of Geometric Structure of Cylinder Head on the Combustion Process in a Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0692
Due to increasingly stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, diesel engines for vehicle are facing more and more technical challenges. Engine downsizing technology is the most promising measures to deal with these challenges at present. With the enhancement of power density, a small engine displacement with a high turbocharging technique becomes popular. In order to increase the intake mass flow rate on a downsizing diesel engine, the tilting axis of intake valve was chosen to enlarge the intake valve diameter and decrease the arc radius of intake ports. Thus cylinder head had to be redesigned to meet this demand. Geometry of cylinder head made a notable effect in organization of in-cylinder flow, fuel-air mixing quality and further combustion characteristics. 3-D CFD was a convenient and economical tool to explore effects of geometry of cylinder head on the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Virtual Test Design and Automated Analysis of Lane Keeping Assistance Systems in Accordance with Euro NCAP Test Protocols

2017-03-28
2017-01-0429
This paper outlines the procedure used to assess the performance of a Lane Keeping Assistance System (LKAS) in a virtual test environment using the newly developed Euro NCAP Lane Support Systems (LSS) Test Protocol, version 1.0, November 2015 [1]. A tool has also been developed to automate the testing and analysis of this test. The Euro NCAP LSS Test defines ten test paths for left lane departures and ten for right lane departures that must be followed by the vehicle before the LKAS activates. Each path must be followed to within a specific tolerance. The vehicle control inputs required to follow the test path are calculated. These tests are then run concurrently in the virtual environment by combining two different software packages. Important vehicle variables are recorded and processed, and a pass/fail status is assigned to each test based on these values automatically.
Standard

Classification System for Automotive Polyamide (PA) Plastics

2017-03-28
CURRENT
J1639_201703
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a system for classification and specification for limited number of polyamides (nylons) used in the Automotive Industry. Based upon ASTM D 4066, Classification System for Nylon Injection and Extrusion Materials (PA), it calls for additional descriptive characteristics and properties commonly used in the Automotive Industry. This document applies to natural and non-color matched black, heat-stabilized polyamide compounds only. Color matched compounds shall be defined by the proprietary OEM standards. This document allows for the use of recycled, reconstituted, and regrind materials provided that the requirements as stated in this document are met, the material has not been altered or modified to change its suitability for safe processing and use, and the material shall be identified as such.
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