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Ozone in High Altitude Aircraft

2011-10-17
CURRENT
AIR910C
The purpose of this report is to provide information on ozone, its effects, generally accepted ozone exposure limits (aviation and non-aviation), and methods of its control in high altitude aircraft. Sources of information are listed and referenced in the text.
Technical Paper

High Altitude Platform System Airship for Telecommunication and Border Monitoring Design and Physical Model

2020-03-10
2020-01-0044
This paper presents an accurate analysis of an innovative high altitude platform with an unconventional ellipsoidal shape during the most critical operation. ...The airship is designed accordingly to the specifications, which have been analyzed in terms of the required CONOPS (Concepts of Operations) which are associated with the proposed High Altitude Pseudo-Satellite (HAPS) technology and special operations and to analyze the operational scenarios. ...The CONOPS includes communications relays, support of intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition monitor “mobile targets”, and reconnaissance, including long-range ISTAR missions performed by the feeder, combining satellite vision and HAPS vision for a forest fire, disasters, naval accidents, maritime and ground borders.
Technical Paper

Minimum Altitude Variation Arcs

1986-10-01
861665
This paper develops information on minimum altitude variation arcs for near-Earth (altitude 150 to 600 km) satellites. At the low altitudes that these satellites operate the Earth's gravitational field and atmospheric drag are the primary perturbations. ...At the low altitudes that these satellites operate the Earth's gravitational field and atmospheric drag are the primary perturbations. ...The secular change caused by these perturbations in radial distance from the center of the Earth to the satellite is computed. Proper adjustment of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and argument of perigee at a given inclination minimizes the altitude deviation over the latitude arc of interest.
Technical Paper

FUEL FEED at HIGH ALTITUDE

1942-01-01
420109
The influence of the following variables that affect aviation fuel during flight to high altitude is discussed: dissolved air, vapor pressure, fuel temperature, turbulence, velocity of fuel flow, rate of climb, altitude, vent-line effects, and heat transfer. ...ADEQUATE fuel feeding at altitude, these authors point out, is a matter of vapor elimination, either by preventing its formation or by removing it from the system in the event that its formation cannot be prevented. ...The greatly accelerated rate at which designs of military aircraft with increased performance have been developed, they explain, has added materially to the difficulty of feeding vapor-free fuel to the carburetors at the higher altitudes. The influence of the following variables that affect aviation fuel during flight to high altitude is discussed: dissolved air, vapor pressure, fuel temperature, turbulence, velocity of fuel flow, rate of climb, altitude, vent-line effects, and heat transfer.
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The Measurement of Engine Thrust in an Altitude Test Facility

2018-02-14
CURRENT
AIR5771A
This report covers engine tests performed in Altitude Test Facilities (ATFs) with the primary purpose of determining steady state thrust at simulated altitude flight conditions as part of the in-flight thrust determination process. ...This report covers engine tests performed in Altitude Test Facilities (ATFs) with the primary purpose of determining steady state thrust at simulated altitude flight conditions as part of the in-flight thrust determination process. As such it is complementary to AIR1703 and AIR5450, published by the SAE E-33 Technical Committee.
Technical Paper

Thermal Verification for Future Large Telecommunications Satellites

1985-07-01
851325
The continued growth in demand for space-based telecommunications systems, coupled with the rapidly decreasing availability of orbital slots at geosynchronous altitude, brings closer the realization of advanced, very large communications satellites. This paper examines the impact that such large satellites will have on the thermal verification process, especially the degree to which present thermal testing and analytical modeling techniques must be adapted. ...In particular, the effects of satellite modularization and the use of advanced thermal technologies in the satellite's Thermal Control Subsystem are investigated. ...This paper examines the impact that such large satellites will have on the thermal verification process, especially the degree to which present thermal testing and analytical modeling techniques must be adapted.
Technical Paper

High Altitude Applications of the Gates Learjet

1976-02-01
760491
This paper describes two high altitude missions of the Gates Learjet at altitudes up to 50,000 feet. The first application involves the installation of an infrared telescope in support of NASA space exploration projects. ...Also included in the paper is a brief description of a proposed high altitude research vehicle (HARV) designed for flight operations at 60,000 feet.
Technical Paper

Communication Satellites and Their Possible Influence on the Automobile

1969-02-01
690660
The progress of communication satellites is briefly summarized and their future technological potential is highlighted. The promise of UHF satellites for mobile communication services is described, including new concepts permitting intense sharing of these frequencies with satellites without penalizing the established and allocated usage. ...The promise of UHF satellites for mobile communication services is described, including new concepts permitting intense sharing of these frequencies with satellites without penalizing the established and allocated usage. ...The promise of UHF satellites for mobile communication services is described, including new concepts permitting intense sharing of these frequencies with satellites without penalizing the established and allocated usage. The future of travel and the automobile is discussed, including the competition among various modes of travel and between travel and electronics for communicating.
Technical Paper

French-German Broadcasting Satellites Advanced Thermal Control

1984-07-01
840966
The developed platforms and their thermal control must permit : - first, to develop preoperational satellites with three operating channels - later, to produce operational satellites with five active channels. ...FRANCE and GERMANY have undertaken a joint program to provide the two countries with direct broadcasting satellites. The developed platforms and their thermal control must permit : - first, to develop preoperational satellites with three operating channels - later, to produce operational satellites with five active channels. ...The proposed modular concept allows easy adaptation to various payloads These satellites require an advanced thermal control design to: - transfer to space highly concentrated and extremely non-symmetrically distributed heat, - maintain correct temperatures in eclipses and preoperational phase characterized by very low dissipations.
Technical Paper

The Earth Resources Technology Satellites (ERTS) System

1970-02-01
700761
This paper describes the Earth Resources Technology Satellites which are part of an experimental program to provide data pertaining to: Agriculture Geology Hydrology Geography Cartography Oceanography The primary objective of the ERTS mission is to obtain high resolution multi-spectral images of the earth's surface over a period of one year. ...This paper describes the Earth Resources Technology Satellites which are part of an experimental program to provide data pertaining to: Agriculture Geology Hydrology Geography Cartography Oceanography The primary objective of the ERTS mission is to obtain high resolution multi-spectral images of the earth's surface over a period of one year. This program has already been implemented with the launch of ERTS-A scheduled for March 1972.
Technical Paper

Prediction of High Altitude Performance for UAV Engine

2015-01-14
2015-26-0207
In the present case the validated model was used to predict high altitude performance of UAV engine i.e. power at different altitudes. High altitude performance for UAV engine is always critical, as it is a deciding factor for UAVs in terms of climb rate, service ceiling, max. speed, etc. ...Further simulated high altitude performance of the engine was then compared with high altitude test results and showed good co-relation. ...This paper deals with the application of 1-D simulation technique for prediction of engine performance at high altitudes. 1-D engine simulation is an important tool for engine development activities. Engine design through simulation can substantially cut down time needed to execute experiments and prototyping, as todays softwares can simulate most of the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Stepped-Piston Two-Stroke Engine for High Altitude Applications

1994-03-01
940400
In order to improve the engine performance at high altitude, it is proposed here to employ a stepped-piston engine. The engine is constructed of a stepped piston and a single stepped cylinder thus forming three compartments; a power, a compression and a crankcase compartment. ...It is shown that a significant improvement in the engine performance map at high altitudes can be obtained with the stepped-piston engine. The optimized engine can function well at 5,000 ft (∼1,500 m) higher than the conventional engine, while its specific fuel consumption at low altitudes is well below the conventional one, thus increasing the aircraft mission range. ...The crankcase-scavenged two-stroke-cycle engine is preferred in cases where low weight and high power output are paramount requirements. These qualities are most important in small pilotless aircraft.
Technical Paper

High Altitude Platforms for Telecommunications: Design Methodology

2009-11-10
2009-01-3159
High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) represents an appealing solution to deliver low cost broadband access to telecommunication (TLC) networks. ...This platform for telecommunication can operate over northern Italy (about 45° latitude north) at altitudes between 15-16 Km. Operative altitude and volume of lifting gas can vary as a function of winds in any other location all over the world. ...In particular, this study consists of a theoretical investigation and energetic design of an HAP derived from a new class of stratospheric airship for the production of energy at high quote. In practice the energy is harvested by photovoltaic panels and stored in hydrogen fuel cells.
Technical Paper

Octane Number Requirements of Vehicles at High Altitude

1987-11-01
872160
However, many new vehicles are now equipped with sophisticated electronic engine systems for control of emissions and improvement of performance and fuel economy at all altitudes. Because these new systems could minimize the altitude effect on octane requirement, Amoco Oil tested twelve 1984-1986 model cars and light trucks. ...Past tests of vehicles show that their octane number requirements decrease with altitude. As a result, gasoline marketers sell lower-octane-number (ON) gasoline in the mountain states and other high-altitude areas.
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced High Altitude Flight Suit

1988-07-01
880998
ILC Dover, Inc. under contract to the United States Air Force Human Systems Division (AFSC) has developed a prototype laboratory test garment known as the “Advanced High Altitude Flight Suit” (AHAFS). The suit incorporates technologies first developed for NASA with the Apollo and Shuttle programs, but optimized in their present iteration for long term uninflated wear (as emergency decompression protection) in pressurized aircraft cockpits.
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