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Lighting Applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

2019-12-05
CURRENT
ARP6336
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides technical recommendations for the lighting applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The technical content of this ARP discusses the unique trade-offs that are necessary to maintain commonality to the U.S.
Standard

Pilot Training Recommendations for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Civil Operations

2010-11-04
CURRENT
ARP5707
The topics identified could be used for the construction of a PTS for UAS commercial pilot operations and a PTS for a UAS pilot instrument rating. The UAS commercial pilot rating would contain restrictions on the types of operations that could be flown that would be dependent on the type of UAS used. ...The UAS commercial pilot rating would contain restrictions on the types of operations that could be flown that would be dependent on the type of UAS used. The UAS type would also influence the specific training topics that would be covered. ...Consequently, the scope of this document is limited to proposing an initial framework to train and certify UAS pilots for fixed wing UAS. As the community grows, certification and training requirements will become more detailed and refined.
Technical Paper

Dual Use IVHM for UAS Health Management

2013-09-17
2013-01-2202
UAS (Unmanned aircraft system), widely known to the general public as drones, are comprised of two major system elements: an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) and a Ground Control Station (GCS). ...UAS (Unmanned aircraft system), widely known to the general public as drones, are comprised of two major system elements: an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) and a Ground Control Station (GCS). UAS have a high mishap rate when compared to manned aircraft. This high mishap rate is one of several barriers to the acceptance of UAS for more widespread usage. ...This high mishap rate is one of several barriers to the acceptance of UAS for more widespread usage. Better awareness of the UA real time as well as long term health situation may allow timely condition based maintenance.
Journal Article

Predictive Analytics for Modeling UAS Safety Risk

2013-09-17
2013-01-2104
This paper illustrates the development of an Object-Oriented Bayesian Network (OOBN) to integrate the safety risks contributing to a notional “lost link” scenario for a small UAS (sUAS). This hypothetical case investigates the possibility of a “lost link” for the sUAS during the bridge inspection mission leading to a collision of the sUAS with the bridge. ...Such a study provides insight into the integration of UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS) that may be used to eventually inform type design, airworthiness, certifications, safety analyses and risk assessments, and operational requirements.
Journal Article

UAS Weaponization Technology Pathfinder Program: AMPM UTP

2012-10-22
2012-01-2122
The UTP program pioneered usage of OSD Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Control Segment (UCS) Architecture Mission Effects Sub-domain and standardized STANAG 4586 weapon control messages that formed the basis of OSD's Data Link IP (draft). ...This was the first demonstration of a precision-guided weapon released from a RQ-7B Shadow UAS. It also marks the first-time that UAI protocol, Army/OSD standard weapon data link messages and a weapon control application built to the UCS Architecture Model were used in commanding a small precision-guided weapon from a UAS platform. ...It also marks the first-time that UAI protocol, Army/OSD standard weapon data link messages and a weapon control application built to the UCS Architecture Model were used in commanding a small precision-guided weapon from a UAS platform. AMRDEC's Universal Test Pod, developed in partnership with “Dynetics Incorporated”, “General Dynamics - Advanced Information Systems”, and “Torch Technologies Incorporated”, demonstrates the universal, open-standard attributes of the OSD's Weapons Universal Systems Interoperability Profile (USIP) and OSD's UAS UCS Architecture.
Journal Article

A Multifaceted Investigation and Intervention into the Process of Flight Clearance for UAS Experimental Flight Test

2015-09-15
2015-01-2385
Unmanned aviation systems (UAS) acquired for US Navy for military roles are developed in the context of NAVAIR's rigorous and well-established policies, procedures and processes employed in the acquisition and development of manned aircraft. ...Due to the perceived risks of UAS experimental flight test, the use of this process has been mandated for all Navy organizations, including use of commercially available UAS in research projects. ...Due to the perceived risks of UAS experimental flight test, the use of this process has been mandated for all Navy organizations, including use of commercially available UAS in research projects. This policy has proved to be a challenge, impeding and discouraging the use of UAS in research and experimental projects.
Technical Paper

Control, Propulsion and Energy Assessment of a Spherical UAS for Low Speed Operations

2017-09-19
2017-01-2065
This paper presents a comparison between different hypotheses of propulsion of a spherical UAS. Different architectures have been analyzed assessing their specific aerodynamic, energetic, and flight mechanics features. ...An effective energy assessment and comparison against a commercial UAS has been produced. Even if the paper considers a preliminary simplified configuration, it demonstrates clearly to be competitive against traditional quadcopters in a predefined reference mission.
Journal Article

Demonstration of a Compact Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power System for UAS Propulsion

2014-09-16
2014-01-2223
We have assembled and demonstrated a prototype power system that uses an innovative hydrogen generator to fuel an ultra-compact PEM fuel cell that is suitable for use in small unmanned aerial system (UAS) propulsion systems. The hydrogen generator uses thermal decomposition of ammonia borane (AB) to produce hydrogen from a very compact and lightweight package. ...The fuel cell plant utilized in the power system prototype has been flown as part of several small UAS development programs and has logged hundreds of hours of flight time. The plant was designed specifically to be readily integrated with a range of hydrogen fueling subsystems and contains the balance of plant necessary to facilitate stand-alone operation.
Technical Paper

UAS Behaviour and Consistency Monitoring System for Countering Cyber Security Threats

2014-09-16
2014-01-2131
Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoiter dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. ...All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures. ...With this in mind the present work will describe a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor UAS mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle the specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over the vehicle's data links.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Slender Beam-Wise Schemes for Structural Behavior of Flexible UAS Wings

2015-09-15
2015-01-2462
The innovative highly flexible wings made of extremely light structures, yet still capable of carrying a considerable amount of non- structural weights, requires significant effort in structural simulations. The complexity involved in such design demands for simplified mathematical tools based on appropriate nonlinear structural schemes combined with reduced order models capable of predicting accurately their aero-structural behaviour. The model presented in this paper is based on a consistent nonlinear beam-wise scheme, capable of simulating the unconventional aeroelastic behaviour of flexible composite wings. The partial differential equations describing the wing dynamics are expanded up to the third order and can be used to explore the effect of static deflection imposed by external trim, the effect of gust loads and the one of nonlinear aerodynamic stall.
Standard

Test Protocol for UAS Reciprocating (Intermittent) Engines as Primary Thrust Mechanism

2017-10-30
WIP
AS6971
This standard is intended to provide a method (or methods) to obtain repeatable and consistent measurements to reflect true engine performance and durability in customer. Standardized methodology is needed to normalize engine performance to fairly rate engine operating variables and parameters. Operational protocols will be defined according to engine class and will be based on those developed for on-highway applications. Based on typical engine operation, a series of speed and load combinations and/or sequences will be determined. The scope will include dynamometer based testing and static propeller-based experiments. The industry consists of many platforms that use reciprocating engines as the main (or sole) provider of rotational energy to propeller. There also exists a significant move towards hybrid-based engine-battery systems that are expected to have different operational requirements.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Solar Powered Unmanned Aircraft System Considering Payload Power Requirements on Sizing

2016-10-25
2016-36-0437
This method is based on traditional design methodology - wing loading estimation for preliminary sizing - modified for Solar Powered UAS case. Based on past works on Solar Powered UAS design, proposes a method that considers payload power consumption and therefore its impact on battery sizing. ...Solar Powered UAS is mainly considered for missions that require a long endurance flight with technological advances in areas such energy storages, solar cells and electronics miniaturization, Solar Powered UAS is already reality and has being mentioned in many Market Forecasts related to UAS nowadays. ...In addition, this method was validated with some built Solar Powered UAS presenting high accuracy between built UAS (its realization) and the method proposed.
Journal Article

Framework for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Safety Risk Management

2011-10-18
2011-01-2688
But the skies can only really open up to UAS when there is an agreed upon UAS safety policy with commonly accepted UAS Safety Risk Management (SRM) processes enabling to show that the risks related to UAS operations in all the different airspace classes can be adequately controlled. ...The purpose is that all potential risks of the newly proposed UAS operations are controlled so that the existing safety level does not decrease (i.e. provides the baseline from which safety requirements for new proposed UAS operations are derived). A survey of UAS activities provides an initial view on the risks and hazards to be considered, the needs and role of potential SRM users, the scope of the aviation system to be considered, the risks to be regulated, selection of suitable risk metrics, and the setting of an acceptable level of safety. ...Although Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have now for some time been used in segregated airspace where separation from other air traffic can be assured, potential users have interests to deploy UAS in non segregated airspace.
Technical Paper

Development of a Safety Assessment Methodology for the Risk of Collision of an Unmanned Aircraft System with the Ground

2011-10-18
2011-01-2684
However, integration of UAS into non-segregated airspace is only viable if UAS operations are proved to be safe enough. ...Such method could support regulators with the setting of UAS safety requirements. It may also be used by applicants (UAS operators and manufacturers) for identification of UAS related hazards, causal factors, and accident scenarios. ...Specific UAS related ESDs are added to cover UAS specific hazards that do not exist in manned aircraft operation [12].
Technical Paper

Determining a Safety Baseline for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

2011-10-18
2011-01-2686
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) emerge as a viable, operational technology for potential civil and commercial applications in the National Airspace System (NAS). ...This study presents a systems-level approach to analyze the safety impact of introducing a new technology, such as UAS, into the NAS. Utilizing Safety Management Systems (SMS) principles and the existing regulatory structure, this paper outlines a methodology to determine a mandatory safety baseline for a specific area of interest regarding a new aviation technology, such as UAS Sense and Avoid. ...Utilizing Safety Management Systems (SMS) principles and the existing regulatory structure, this paper outlines a methodology to determine a mandatory safety baseline for a specific area of interest regarding a new aviation technology, such as UAS Sense and Avoid. The proposed methodology is then employed to determine a baseline set of hazards and causal factors for the UAS Sense and Avoid problem domain and associated regulatory risk controls.
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