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Technical Paper


To achieve these requirements, a special type of aircraft had to be developed and it appears that the aircraft needed is the VTOL. This paper presents the reasons for selecting the Tilt-Wing VTOL over other types of VTOL's as being competitive in Commercial Air Transportation. ...A comparative study of the direct operating cost of a comparable helicopter and fixed wing aircraft with the VTOL is presented along with a comparison of block time and block speed. The operational aspects of the VTOL short haul transport are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages are presented for both commercial and military operations. ...The operational aspects of the VTOL short haul transport are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages are presented for both commercial and military operations.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Propulsion System Design of a VTOL Tailsitter UAV

Tailsitter UAVs with their combined vertical take off and landing (VTOL) and fixed-wing aircraft with full flight-speed regime capability provides a distinct alternative to rotary-wing and ducted fan UAVs (OAVs). ...ITU-BYU Tailsitter concept aims to obtain the energy efficient regimes across the VTOL and the cruising flight regimes. This paper describes the hybrid propulsion system design approach to attain this.
Technical Paper

How Well Can You Predict Skill Levels in Flying a VTOL Simulator?

The objective of this research was to compare scores from modified AFHRL basic attributes tests against speed and proficiency in learning to fly a simulated hypothetical thrust-borne vehicle, the Behavioral Engineering Laboratory's MicroGraphic Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) Simulator. Based on analyses, the PortaBAT tests appear to be reliable predictors of VTOL radial-error performance.
Technical Paper


Jet powered VTOL aircraft with high performance capabilities are feasible and are being developed. Because operation of these vehicles within the low speed flight regime is mandatory, if the VTOL capability is to be realized, possible operational difficulties within this zone must be investigated from a safety standpoint. ...Because operation of these vehicles within the low speed flight regime is mandatory, if the VTOL capability is to be realized, possible operational difficulties within this zone must be investigated from a safety standpoint. ...The low speed flight regime as it applies to jet powered, VTOL, high performance aircraft is presented in comparison to similar zones existing for present day rotorcraft.
Technical Paper

Research on the Quad Tilt Wing Future Civil VTOL Transport

JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has been conducting a research on a future commercial tilt wing VTOL (Vertical TakeOff and Landing) transport under JAXA's "Sky Frontier" Program aiming to develop technologies for aircraft innovation. ...The research focuses on QTW (Quad Tilt Wing) civil VTOL transport, which features tandem tilt wings with propellers mounted at the mid-span of each wing. ...The goals of the research in the present phase are to propose a concept of a QTW business VTOL transport system and to pursue the essential technologies development such as OEI (One-Engine-Inoperative) safe recovery, transition flight control and cruise efficient aerodynamic design.
Technical Paper

VJ - 101 C Supersonic VTOL Program

It is designed to investigate a VTOL capability combined with a high supersonic level flight speed. To date, two models of this aircraft have been designed and built.
Technical Paper

Interface of VTOL, STOL, and CTOL Traffic in Busy Terminal Areas

Airport congestion, combined with the rapid and continuing growth of corridor air traffic, has spurred the development of potentially viable VTOL and STOL systems. As these systems grow, they will introduce new close-in airports in metropolitan areas, as well as increase the efficiency of existing airports for medium and long haul transportation.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Features of Jets in Lift and Cruise Modes for VTOL Aircraft

Experiments were performed to simulate jet plume effects associated with VTOL aircraft in takeoff and cruise modes. A water facility was used to investigate the influence of inclination angle and separation distance on the three-dimensional fountain flowfield generated by two impinging jets operating at a jet Reynolds number of 250,000.
Technical Paper

World's First VTOL Airplane Convair/Navy XFY-1 Pogo

The Convair/Navy XFY-1 VTOL fighter was ahead of its time. In the early 1950s it became the first airplane to take off vertically, hover, transition to high speed level flight, transition back to hover, and land vertically.
Technical Paper

Heliports — Key Catalyst in VTOL Industry Growth

The helicopter is an unconventional air vehicle. The commercial use and operation of helicopters has found a limited market in highly specialized applications and primarily in remote areas where the unique capabilities of these machines can justify the higher acquisition and operational costs. But the market offering the greatest potential for helicopter service and concurrent equipment sales is in our heavily congested cities. This market is relatively stagnant and untapped because of a paucity of landing facilities. The proliferation of such facilities must be of as much concern to the airframe manufacturer as it is to the urban area operator. The problems facing the establishment of heliports in numbers sufficient to exploit this market and a joint manufacturer-operator program for attacking these problems form the basis for this paper.
Technical Paper

Low-Cost Approaches to Proving of High-Risk Fast VTOL Designs

A September 1991 industry-government workshop was held under the auspices of the United States Army Research Office. This meeting, together with some subsequent discussions, examined impediments and opportunities relating to new, versatile, high-performance vertical aircraft for Army or other users. It was concluded that the technology elements that could enable free-wheeling yet economical flight proofing of risky design concepts, without jeopardizing human life, are generally available.
Technical Paper

Airline Economic Requirements for 1975 STOL and VTOL Systems

The economic factors are discussed, which affect the need for metroflight service in the Northeast Corridor, the problems of developing the system, and a practical solution. The basic problem is the enormous cost and the lack of confidence felt by those who must build the landing facilities and buy the aircraft. The proposed solution is an evolutionary development process, starting with a short term metroflight demonstration, using existing 40-60 passenger propeller-driven STOL aircraft operating from simple, interim city-center STOLports between Manhattan, and Washington, D. C. or Boston. Such an evolutionary development is essential if a mature metroflight system is to be realized without large federal subsidies.
Technical Paper

Applications and Engineering Problems of VTOL - STOL Military Aircraft

Viewed against the background of a defense policy which requires the nation to be prepared at any instant to mount military operations ranging from a mere show of force to all out nuclear war, the possible role of V/STOL aircraft in the military organization is examined. A number of potential missions are projected and analyzed in order to obtain an indication of the probable routes of development that will be followed. The still existing technical difficulties and the areas of required research and development are discussed with an eye to eliminating the gap between the initial, or exploratory research, and the final development of a weapons system.
Technical Paper

VTOL Flight Investigation to Develop a Decelerating Instrument Approach Capability

The inability of available situation displays to provide a decelerating instrument approach capability to a hover led to a flight research program in which control-command information was displayed for three degrees of freedom. The test aircraft (NASA's CH-46C in-flight simulator) was stabilized with high-gain attitude command system. Using this system, the pilot was able to decelerate the aircraft to a hover while simultaneously following a 6 deg glidepath. Although these tests demonstrate the potential of this concept, a number of factors, including adequate integration of command and situation information, were identified as affecting pilot acceptance of the system.
Technical Paper

Design and Evaluation of Electric Propulsion System for Electric VTOL

Electric vertical take-off and landing aircraft (eVTOL) has become a main trend in general aviation. Battery, power electronic and motor have made big progress in the last decades, most companies and research institutions are focusing on the development of 2-5 seat (2 tons maximum takeoff weight) eVTOL products and strat to put into market. This paper tried to defines the design and analysis process of electric propulsion system taking 2-ton eVTOL as an example. Firstly, the parameters of the aircraft is defined and the power and energy consumption was analyzed based on flight phase. Secondly, the electric propulsion system architecture is defined based on the aircraft design. The design and evaluation of propeller, motor, motor controller and battery were carried out respectively. The optimal design of propeller in hover stage and cruise stage is conducted.
Technical Paper

Energy and Power System Design and Test Verification for Electric VTOL

Electric technology has gradually changed the form of energy use in transportation. Electric vertical take-off and landing aircraft (eVTOL) will become an important means of transportation in the future, bringing significant changes to urban transportation and providing a more convenient and comfortable travel experience for people. eVTOLs are being extensively researched and developed by the global aviation industry as well as by many innovative technology companies. In this paper, we focus on the system design and testing of the four-axis and eight-propeller eVTOL. The overall parameters of the aircraft are defined, and the energy and power architecture design and analysis are carried out. Carry out the hybrid power supply design of lithium battery and fuel cell, and complete the parameter matching design of power system.
Technical Paper

Attitude Stability Control and Visualization Simulation for Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) Fixed-Wing Aircraft

Direct debugging of a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) fixed-wing aircraft’s control system can easily result in risk and personnel damage. It is effectively to employ simulation and numerical methods to validate control performance. ...In this paper, the attitude stabilization controller for VTOL fixed-wing aircraft is designed, and the controller performance is verified by MATLAB and visual simulation software, which significantly increases designed efficiency and safety of the controller. ...In detail, we first develop the VTOL fixed-wing aircraft’s six degrees of freedom kinematics and dynamics models using Simulink module, and the cascade PID control technique is applied to the VTOL aircraft’s attitude stabilization control.