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Standard

Ambulance Equipment Mount Device or Systems

2014-07-14
CURRENT
J3043_201407
Its purpose is to provide equipment manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent, ensure equipment mount devices or systems meet the same performance criteria across the industry.
Standard

Ambulance Interior Storage Compartment Integrity

2016-11-01
CURRENT
J3058_201611
Its purpose is to provide component manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent, ensure interior Storage Compartments or systems meet the same performance criteria across the industry.
Standard

Ambulance Litter Integrity, Retention, and Patient Restraint

2016-11-01
CURRENT
J3027_201611
Its purpose is to provide litter manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent ensures the patient litter, litter retention system, and patient restraint utilizes a similar dynamic performance test methodology to that which is applied to other vehicle seating and occupant restraint systems.
Standard

Ambulance Modular Body Evaluation-Quasi-Static Loading for Type I and Type III Modular Ambulance Bodies

2017-02-22
CURRENT
J3057_201702
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting quasi-static modular body strength tests for ambulance applications. Its purpose is to establish recommended test practices which standardize the procedure for Type I and Type III bodies, provide ambulance builders and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, provide acceptance criteria that, to a great extent, ensures the ambulance structure meets the same performance criteria across the industry. ...Its purpose is to establish recommended test practices which standardize the procedure for Type I and Type III bodies, provide ambulance builders and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, provide acceptance criteria that, to a great extent, ensures the ambulance structure meets the same performance criteria across the industry. ...Its purpose is to establish recommended test practices which standardize the procedure for Type I and Type III bodies, provide ambulance builders and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, provide acceptance criteria that, to a great extent, ensures the ambulance structure meets the same performance criteria across the industry. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
Standard

Ambulance Patient Compartment Seated Occupant Excursion Zone Evaluation

2017-04-06
CURRENT
J3059_201704
This SAE Information Report describes the testing and reporting procedures that may be used to evaluate and document the excursion of a worker or civilian when transported in a seated and restrained position in the patient compartment of a ground ambulance when exposed to a front, side, or rear impact. Its purpose is to provide seating and occupant restraint manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and documentation methods needed to identify head travel paths in crash loading events. ...Its purpose is to provide seating and occupant restraint manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and documentation methods needed to identify head travel paths in crash loading events. ...Rather, the goal is to provide ambulance manufacturers with the data needed to design safer and functionally sound workstations for Emergency Medical Service workers so that workers are better able to safely perform patient care tasks in a moving ambulance.
Standard

Ambulance Patient Compartment Seating Integrity and Occupant Restraint

2016-11-01
CURRENT
J3026_201611
Its purpose is to provide ambulance seating manufacturers, ambulance occupant restraint manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent ensures the occupant seating and occupant restraint system meet similar performance criteria as FMVSS 208 requires for seat belted passengers in light vehicles. ...This SAE Recommended Practice describes the testing procedures that may be used to evaluate the integrity of ground ambulance-based occupant seating and occupant restraint systems for workers and civilians transported in the patient compartment of an ambulance when exposed to a frontal or side impact. This Recommended Practice was based on ambulance patient compartment dynamics and is not applicable to other vehicle applications or seating positions.
Standard

Ambulance Patient Compartment Structural Integrity Test to Support SAE J3027 Compliant Litter Systems

2017-03-28
CURRENT
J3102_201703
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the dynamic and static testing procedures required to evaluate the integrity of the ambulance substructure, to support the safe mounting of an SAE J3027 compliant litter retention device or system, when exposed to a frontal, side or rear impact (i.e., a crash impact). ...Its purpose is to provide manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that to a great extent ensure the ambulance substructure meets the same performance criteria across the industry. ...Its purpose is to provide manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that to a great extent ensure the ambulance substructure meets the same performance criteria across the industry. Prospective manufacturers or vendors have the option of performing either dynamic testing or static testing.
Standard

Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity – Side Impact Ambulance Patient Compartment

2016-08-23
CURRENT
J2956_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting side impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. ...Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
Standard

Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity - Rear Impact Ambulance Patient Compartment

2016-08-17
CURRENT
J3044_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting rear impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mount testing for ambulances. ...Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mount testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
Standard

Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity – Frontal Impact Ambulance Patient Compartment

2016-08-17
CURRENT
J2917_201608
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting frontal impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. ...Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
Technical Paper

Crash Testing of Ambulance Chassis Cab Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4267
This program consisted of testing one Type I ambulance mounted on a Ford F-350 truck chassis (1994 vintage), and three Type III ambulances mounted on Ford E-350 van chassis (two 1993, and one 1999 vintage). ...Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM), and the Ministry of Health & Long-Term Care, Ontario (Canada), conducted a test program to evaluate the capability of mobile restraint systems to protect occupants in the patient compartment of an ambulance. This paper focuses on the vehicle chassis behavior and acceleration pulses as seen in each test conducted to support the program. ...A vehicle-to-vehicle side impact test was conducted using the Type I ambulance with a targeted change in velocity of 27.4 kph (17 mph). A 1984 Chevrolet Sierra 2500 was the impacting vehicle for the side test.
Journal Article

Ambulance Vehicle Crashworthiness and Passive Safety Design: A Comparative Evaluation

2008-10-07
2008-01-2695
This comparative evaluation of USA ‘concept safety’ ambulances and a standard Australian ambulance is based on basic principles of crashworthiness and available crash test data. ...Ambulances are largely exempt from crashworthiness and occupant protection passive safety design standards in the USA, and have a poor road safety record. ...There are features of USA ambulance design that are not within known principles and technical aspects of crashworthiness and safety design, and include some predictable serious occupant protection hazards.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of an Ambulance with Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0815
The vibration and instability experienced in an ambulance can lead to secondary injury to a patient and discourage a paramedic from emergency care. ...This paper presents a hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system which can achieve enhanced cooperative control of roll, pitch and bounce motion modes to improve the ambulance's ride comfort and handling performance. A lumped-mass model integrated with a mechanical and hydraulic coupled system is developed by using free-body diagram and transfer matrix methods. ...A special modal analysis method is employed to reveal the vibration characteristics of the ambulance with the HIS. A series of frequency analyses, including free vibration with identified eigenvalues and eigenvectors, vibration transmissibility and force vibration with stochastic road inputs, are performed to evaluate the vehicular performance between an ambulance with a conventional suspension and one with the HIS.
Technical Paper

Development of a dynamic testing procedure to assess crashworthiness of the rear patient compartment of ambulance vehicles

2001-06-04
2001-06-0053
Ambulances have different performance needs and structural design compared to standard passenger vehicles. ...Also occupants in the ambulance rear patient compartment maybe side facing, rear facing or recumbent. There is also no USA dynamic safety standard for testing the ambulance patient compartment occupant or equipment restraint systems. ...There is also no USA dynamic safety standard for testing the ambulance patient compartment occupant or equipment restraint systems. This study describes an accelerator sled test conducted of an ambulance rear cabin environment which demonstrates some optimal restraint practices for pediatric patients and also the interaction between the different occupants and the need for effective restraint systems.
Technical Paper

Ambulance crashworthiness and occupant dynamics in vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests: Preliminary report

2001-06-04
2001-06-0012
This study is an interim report on work in progress which demonstrates occupant safety and crashworthiness of ambulance vehicles in vehicle to vehicle intersection type crash tests. The ambulance vehicles were configured with instrumented ATDs to represent 95th percentile male, 5th percentile female and 3 year child occupants. ...There are no dynamic safety testing standards specifically for ambulance vehicles in the USA. These vehicles have also been identified to have high crash injury and fatality rates per mile, with a majority of the fatalities involving either an intersection or a frontal crash. ...The urgent need for improvements to ambulance crash safety standards and designs are discussed.
Technical Paper

Use of the Save Rescue System Coordinated With Vehicle Traffic and Ambulance Security

1978-01-01
785014
An investigation by Porsche into the requirements for ambulance vehicles to be used in the next decade led to the development of the SAVE system. The system consists of a 2.8 t transport vehicle of almost arbitrary selection, an additional mechanical or hydropneumatic cushioning system incorporated in the composite construction, and a removable rescue compartment. ...This compartment is compatible with the frame of any of the SAVE ambulances. The paper first defines and evaluates the goals of the investigation. Next are discussed individual attributes of the vehicle: driving performance, driving safety, communication including warning systems (e.g. sirens, lights), and passenger safety and comfort. ...The conflicting demands of patient care, safety of personnel, and general traffic safety were uncoupled from each other by the successful adaption of the salient features of the SAVE ambulance (e.g., special cushioning system, removable rescue compartment). This allows improvements to be made in each category.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of the Patient Compartment of Ambulance Vehicles under Crash Conditions: Testing Countermeasures to Mitigate Injury

2001-03-05
2001-01-1173
Accelerator sled testing of the ambulance rear patient compartment (ambulance box or rear cabin) with Anthropomorphic Test Devices was conducted under frontal impact conditions with a target sled pulse was 26 G and 30 mph. ...ABSTRACT There has been very limited research on the biomechanics of occupant safety in the ambulance environment. Occupant protection or crash testing safety standards for these unique vehicles are lacking in the United States. ...Recent studies have identified ambulances as high risk passenger transport vehicles. This study was conducted to identify some of the occupant safety hazards in the ambulance environment and to determine the efficacy of some countermeasures to mitigate ambulance occupant injury.
Standard

Ambulance Patient Compartment Seating Integrity and Occupant Restraint

2014-08-11
HISTORICAL
J3026_201408
Its purpose is to provide ambulance seating manufacturers, ambulance occupant restraint manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent ensures the occupant seating and occupant restraint system meet similar performance criteria as FMVSS 208 requires for seat belted passengers in light vehicles. ...This SAE Recommended Practice describes the testing procedures that may be used to evaluate the integrity of ground ambulance-based occupant seating and occupant restraint systems for workers and civilians transported in the patient compartment of an ambulance when exposed to a frontal or side impact. This Recommended Practice was based on ambulance patient compartment dynamics and is not applicable to other vehicle applications or seating positions.
Standard

Ambulance Litter Integrity, Retention, and Patient Restraint

2014-07-14
HISTORICAL
J3027_201407
Its purpose is to provide litter manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent ensures the patient litter, litter retention system, and patient restraint utilizes a similar dynamic performance test methodology to that which is applied to other vehicle seating and occupant restraint systems.
Standard

Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity - Rear Impact System-Level Ambulance Patient Compartment

2014-06-25
HISTORICAL
J3044_201406
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting rear impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mount testing for ambulances. ...Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mount testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
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