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Technical Paper

The Application of Graphite Fiber Composites to Airframe Structures

1968-02-01
680316
This paper examines the potential of graphite composite materials in airframe structures by developing data on the weight of various structural elements fabricated in graphite composites, and then applying this data to a study of the weight of the X-22A V/STOL aircraft. ...This paper examines the potential of graphite composite materials in airframe structures by developing data on the weight of various structural elements fabricated in graphite composites, and then applying this data to a study of the weight of the X-22A V/STOL aircraft. It is shown that over 30% of the weight of the current aluminum structure could be saved, resulting in a 100% increase in payload. ...The curves presented thus provide a substantial amount of data for other studies of graphite composite applications. The weight of joints, connections, and fittings has not been considered in the present study, but is is evident that the large potential gains from composite materials could be seriously reduced if appropriate joining methods are not developed.
Technical Paper

A Tool for Airframe Shaping - Idea and Application

1993-05-01
931224
Considerations are outlined about design aid for airframe shaping in small CAD systems. Authors discuss problems associated with the adaptation of existing programs. ...A brief description of its practical use in a composite glider fuselage designing and manufacturing is also included.
Technical Paper

Damage Tolerance Analysis and Testing of Unbalanced Bonded Composite Repairs for Aluminum Airframes

2005-10-03
2005-01-3331
In this paper, the authors review damage mechanisms and failure modes of bonded composite repairs applied to aluminum aircraft structures, with a focus on the effects of bending on the performance of asymmetric or one-sided repairs. ...Failure mechanisms are elucidated using results from testing carried out during the course of the University of British Columbia Bonded Composite Repair Program (UBC-BCRP). The authors then outline the regulatory requirements for damage tolerance and describe the new methods and test data developed under the UBC-BCRP to improve the analysis of bending repairs.
Technical Paper

Airframe Technology for Energy Efficient Transport Aircraft

1976-02-01
760929
Advanced composite structures, advanced wing geometries, and active control systems all promise substantial benefits in fuel efficiency and direct operating cost for derivative and new aircraft introduced by 1985.
Technical Paper

Design, Fabrication and Test of a Complex Helicopter Airframe Section

1980-09-01
801213
Under a jointly sponsored Army/NASA contract NAS1-13479 (Army Structures Laboratory, USARTL (AVRADCOM), and NASA-Langley) Sikorsky Aircraft has been conducting programs for the design, fabrication and test of advanced composite airframe structures. This paper will present the progress of Phave IV of the contract involving cabin roof structures. ...The cabin roof structure is one of the most complex regions in an all composite helicopter airframe. The roof contains highly loaded joints where the major frames and beams intersect and high concentrated loads from the main gear box are introduced. ...The purpose of this paper is to present the latest progress in the development of all composite helicopter airframe structures.
Technical Paper

Manufacturing Tolerances for Natural Laminar Flow Airframe Surfaces

1985-04-01
850863
Published waviness and boundary-layer transition measurements on several modern metal and composite airframes have demonstrated the fact that achievable surface waviness is readily compatible with laminar flow requirements. ...In recent years, natural laminar flow (NLF) has been proven to be achievable on modern smooth airframe surfaces over a range of cruise flight conditions representative of most current business and commuter aircraft.
Book

Structural Composite Materials

2010-01-01
This book deals with all aspects of advanced composite materials: what they are, where they are used, how they are made, their properties, how they are designed and analyzed, and how they perform in-service. ...It covers both continuous and discontinuous fiber composites fabricated from polymer, metal, and ceramic matrices, with an emphasis on continuous fiber polymer matrix composites. ...It covers both continuous and discontinuous fiber composites fabricated from polymer, metal, and ceramic matrices, with an emphasis on continuous fiber polymer matrix composites. A unique feature of this book is that it provides a comprehensive overview of composite materials from an industrial perspective, drawing on the author’s 38 years of industry experience.
Standard

Gearbox - Airframe Mounted Accessory

2016-05-10
CURRENT
ARP1961A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) addresses the characteristics required for the definition, development, and acquisition of a satisfactory airframe mounted accessory gearbox (AMAG).
Standard

Bearings, Roller, Needle, Airframe, Antifriction, Inch

2022-01-14
CURRENT
AS39901C
This standard covers the requirements for non-separable, airframe anti-friction needle bearings, corrosion resistant and traditional materials, intended for use in flight vehicle control systems, with radial loads.
Technical Paper

More About Lightning Induced Effects on Systems in a Composite Aircraft

2013-09-17
2013-01-2156
The interaction of lightning with aircraft structure, and the coupling of induced energy with harnesses and systems inside the airframe, is a complex phenomenon, mainly for composite aircraft. Composite structures are either not conductive at all (e.g., fiberglass) or are significantly less conductive than metals (e.g., carbon fiber). ...In the same lighting environment, two equivalent airframes with one made of composite and one all metal, lightning current and its induced effects on systems, will be very different and higher on composite aircraft from those observed on a metallic aircraft. ...This is why the protection of a composite aircraft from lightning strike induced effects is a real challenge, and cannot be improvised.
Technical Paper

Composite Applications to Aircraft Structures Now and in the Future

1979-02-01
790146
The next-generation aircraft will incorporate composites in a significantly larger proportion of the airframe structure to exploit more fully all advantageous characteristics of advanced composite structure (strength, stiffness, tailorability, weight, and fabrication cost savings). ...The primary force behind composite materials development for aircraft applications was to achieve weight savings in weight-critical regions. ...In today's aircraft technology, graphite/epoxy composites are fulfilling this need and are being used as structural materials in the form of cross-plied fiber-reinforced laminates for conventional monolithic wing/empennage skins and substructure, or as face sheets on honeycomb-type structure.
Technical Paper

Design and Evaluation of Novel Composite Aircraft Repairs

2003-09-08
2003-01-3016
The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft repair facilities an alternative repair process that alleviates the abovementioned concerns. ...One of the most common damages occurred found on commercial airframes are dents and gouges. The usual repair for these damages includes installation of metallic doublers with rivets or with hi-loks. ...Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure.
Technical Paper

Design and Evaluation of Novel Composite Aircraft Repairs

2004-11-02
2004-01-3085
The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft repair facilities an alternative repair process that alleviates the above-mentioned concerns. ...One of the most common damages occurred found on commercial airframes are dents and gouges. The usual repair for these damages includes installation of metallic doublers with rivets or with hi-loks. ...Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure.
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