Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Event

2024-07-23
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases.
Event

2022 COMVEC™

2024-07-23
COMVEC™ conference is the only North American event that addresses vehicles and equipment spanning on-highway, off-highway, agricultural, construction, industrial, military, and mining sectors.
Journal Article

A Centrally Managed Identity-Anonymized CAN Communication System*

2018-05-16
Abstract Identity-Anonymized CAN (IA-CAN) protocol is a secure CAN protocol, which provides the sender authentication by inserting a secret sequence of anonymous IDs (A-IDs) shared among the communication nodes. To prevent malicious attacks from the IA-CAN protocol, a secure and robust system error recovery mechanism is required. This article presents a central management method of IA-CAN, named the IA-CAN with a global A-ID, where a gateway plays a central role in the session initiation and system error recovery. Each ECU self-diagnoses the system errors, and (if an error happens) it automatically resynchronizes its A-ID generation by acquiring the recovery information from the gateway. We prototype both a hardware version of an IA-CAN controller and a system for the IA-CAN with a global A-ID using the controller to verify our concept.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Attack and Defense Model for the Automotive Domain

2019-01-17
Abstract In the automotive domain, the overall complexity of technical components has increased enormously. Formerly isolated, purely mechanical cars are now a multitude of cyber-physical systems that are continuously interacting with other IT systems, for example, with the smartphone of their driver or the backend servers of the car manufacturer. This has huge security implications as demonstrated by several recent research papers that document attacks endangering the safety of the car. However, there is, to the best of our knowledge, no holistic overview or structured description of the complex automotive domain. Without such a big picture, distinct security research remains isolated and is lacking interconnections between the different subsystems. Hence, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the overall security of a car or to identify aspects that have not been sufficiently covered by security analyses.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Risk Management Approach to Information Security in Intelligent Transport Systems

2021-05-05
Abstract Connected vehicles and intelligent transportation systems are currently evolving into highly interconnected digital environments. Due to the interconnectivity of different systems and complex communication flows, a joint risk analysis for combining safety and security from a system perspective does not yet exist. We introduce a novel method for joint risk assessment in the automotive sector as a combination of the Diamond Model, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR). These methods have been sequentially composed, which results in a comprehensive risk management approach to information security in an intelligent transport system (ITS). The Diamond Model serves to identify and structurally describe threats and scenarios, the widely accepted FMEA provides threat analysis by identifying possible error combinations, and FAIR provides a quantitative estimation of probabilities for the frequency and magnitude of risk events.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Training Approach for Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering

2024-04-09
2024-01-2800
A significant milestone in advancing cybersecurity within the automotive industry is the release of the first international standard for automotive cybersecurity ISO/SAE 21434:2021 ‘Road Vehicles — Cybersecurity Engineering’. A recently published type approval regulation for automotive cybersecurity (UN R155) is also tailored for member countries of the UNECE WP.29 alliance. ...Thus, the challenges for embedded automotive systems engineers are increasing while frameworks, tools and shared concepts for cybersecurity engineering and training are scarce. Hence, cybersecurity training in the automotive domain necessitates an understanding of domain-specific intricacies and the unique challenges at the intersection of cybersecurity and embedded systems engineering, elevating the need for improving the skill set and knowledge of automotive cybersecurity engineers. ...Hence, cybersecurity training in the automotive domain necessitates an understanding of domain-specific intricacies and the unique challenges at the intersection of cybersecurity and embedded systems engineering, elevating the need for improving the skill set and knowledge of automotive cybersecurity engineers. This paper delves into an automotive cybersecurity training concept aimed at enhancing the proficiency of development engineers.
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Journal Article

A Deep Neural Network Attack Simulation against Data Storage of Autonomous Vehicles

2023-09-29
Abstract In the pursuit of advancing autonomous vehicles (AVs), data-driven algorithms have become pivotal in replacing human perception and decision-making. While deep neural networks (DNNs) hold promise for perception tasks, the potential for catastrophic consequences due to algorithmic flaws is concerning. A well-known incident in 2016, involving a Tesla autopilot misidentifying a white truck as a cloud, underscores the risks and security vulnerabilities. In this article, we present a novel threat model and risk assessment (TARA) analysis on AV data storage, delving into potential threats and damage scenarios. Specifically, we focus on DNN parameter manipulation attacks, evaluating their impact on three distinct algorithms for traffic sign classification and lane assist.
Journal Article

A Distributed “Black Box” Audit Trail Design Specification for Connected and Automated Vehicle Data and Software Assurance

2020-10-14
Abstract Automotive software is increasingly complex and critical to safe vehicle operation, and related embedded systems must remain up to date to ensure long-term system performance. Update mechanisms and data modification tools introduce opportunities for malicious actors to compromise these cyber-physical systems, and for trusted actors to mistakenly install incompatible software versions. A distributed and stratified “black box” audit trail for automotive software and data provenance is proposed to assure users, service providers, and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of vehicular software integrity and reliability. The proposed black box architecture is both layered and diffuse, employing distributed hash tables (DHT), a parity system and a public blockchain to provide high resilience, assurance, scalability, and efficiency for automotive and other high-assurance systems.
Journal Article

A Global Survey of Standardization and Industry Practices of Automotive Cybersecurity Validation and Verification Testing Processes and Tools

2023-11-16
Abstract The United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation 155—Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Management System (UN R155) mandates the development of cybersecurity management systems (CSMS) as part of a vehicle’s lifecycle. ...Due to the focus of R155 and its suggested implementation guideline, ISO/SAE 21434:2021—Road Vehicle Cybersecurity Engineering, mainly centering on the alignment of cybersecurity risk management to the vehicle development lifecycle, there is a gap in knowledge of proscribed activities for validation and verification testing. ...An inherent component of the CSMS is cybersecurity risk management and assessment. Validation and verification testing is a key activity for measuring the effectiveness of risk management, and it is mandated by UN R155 for type approval.
Journal Article

A Novel Assessment and Administration Method of Autonomous Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0708
As a promising strategic industry group that is rapidly evolving around the world, autonomous vehicle is entering a critical phase of commercialization from demonstration to end markets. The global automotive industry and governments are facing new common topics and challenges brought by autonomous vehicle, such as how to test, assess, and administrate the autonomous vehicle to ensure their safe running in real traffic situations and proper interactions with other road users. Starting from the facts that the way to autonomous driving is the process of a robot or a machine taking over driving tasks from a human. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of autonomous vehicle which are different from traditional one, then demonstrates the limitations of the existing certification mechanism and related testing methods when applied to autonomous vehicle.
Journal Article

A Quantitative Analysis of Autonomous Vehicle Cybersecurity as a Component of Trust

2023-08-10
Abstract Connected autonomous vehicles that employ internet connectivity are technologically complex, which makes them vulnerable to cyberattacks. Many cybersecurity researchers, white hat hackers, and black hat hackers have discovered numerous exploitable vulnerabilities in connected vehicles. ...This study expanded the technology acceptance model (TAM) to include cybersecurity and level of trust as determinants of technology acceptance. This study surveyed a diverse sample of 209 licensed US drivers over 18 years old.
Journal Article

A Study on Secured Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Fog Computing Networks

2023-11-03
Abstract With the recent advancement in technologies, researchers worldwide have a growing interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The last few years have been significant in terms of its global awareness, adoption, and applications across industries. In UAV-aided wireless networks, there are some limitations in terms of power consumption, data computation, data processing, endurance, and security. So, the idea of UAVs and Edge or Fog computing together deals with the limitations and provides intelligence at the network’s edge, which makes it more valuable to use in emergency applications. Fog computing distributes data in a decentralized way and blockchain also works on the principle of decentralization. Blockchain, as a decentralized database, uses cryptographic methods including hash functions and public key encryption to secure the user information. It is a prominent solution to secure the user’s information in blocks and maintain privacy.
Journal Article

A Systematic Mapping Study on Security Countermeasures of In-Vehicle Communication Systems

2021-11-16
Abstract The innovations of vehicle connectivity have been increasing dramatically to enhance the safety and user experience of driving, while the rising numbers of interfaces to the external world also bring security threats to vehicles. Many security countermeasures have been proposed and discussed to protect the systems and services against attacks. To provide an overview of the current states in this research field, we conducted a systematic mapping study (SMS) on the topic area “security countermeasures of in-vehicle communication systems.” A total of 279 papers are identified based on the defined study identification strategy and criteria. We discussed four research questions (RQs) related to the security countermeasures, validation methods, publication patterns, and research trends and gaps based on the extracted and classified data. Finally, we evaluated the validity threats and the whole mapping process.
Technical Paper

A Zero Trust Architecture for Automotive Networks

2024-04-09
2024-01-2793
Since the early 1990’s, commercial vehicles have suffered from repeated vulnerability exploitations that resulted in a need for improved automotive cybersecurity. This paper outlines the strategies and challenges of implementing an automotive Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) to secure intra-vehicle networks. ...This research successfully met the four requirements and demonstrated that using ZT principles in an on-vehicle network greatly improved the cybersecurity posture with manageable impact to system performance and deployment.
Article

A how-to for car hackers

2016-09-22
The automotive cyber wars are just getting started. Regardless of what side of the battle you’re on, there are valuable insights into the other guy’s strategies and tactics in an excellent new book, The Car Hacker's Handbook .
X