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Journal Article

Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment in Automotive Cyber Security

2013-04-08
2013-01-1415
The process of hazard analysis and risk assessment (H&R or HARA) is well-established in standards and methods for functional safety, such as the automotive functional safety standard ISO 26262. Considering the parallel discipline of cyber security, it is necessary to establish an analogous process of threat analysis and risk assessment (T&R) in order to identify potential security attacks and the risk associated with these attacks if they were successful. While functional safety H&R processes could be used for threat analysis, these methods need extension and adaptation to the cyber security domain. This paper describes how such a method has been developed based on the approach described in ISO 26262 and the related MISRA Safety Analysis Guidelines. In particular key differences are described in the understanding of the severity of a security attack, and the factors that contribute to the probability of a successful attack.
Video

Advancing Aircraft Cyber Security - Potential New Architectures and Technologies

2012-03-16
Cyber security in the aviation industry, especially in relation to onboard aircraft systems, presents unique challenges in its implementation and management. The cyber threat model is constantly evolving and will continually present new and different challenges to the aircraft operator in responding to new cyber threats without either invoking a lengthy software update and re-certification process or limiting aircraft-to-ground communications to the threatened system or systems. This presentation discusses a number of system architectural options and developing technologies that could be considered to enhance the aircraft cyber protection and defensive capabilities of onboard systems as well as to minimize the effort associated with certification/re-certification. Some of these limit the aircraft?s vulnerabilities or in cyber terms, its ?threat surface?.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Standard

Vendor Component Program Data File Interface for OEM Assembly Operations

2010-05-03
HISTORICAL
J2286_201005
This interface document SAE J2286 revises the requirements for file formats as were originally described in SAE J1924. This document describes Interface 1 (I/F 1) in SAE J2461. This document does not imply the use of a specific hardware interface, but may be used with other hardware interfaces such as SAE J1939, ISO 15765 or ISO 14229. The requirements of SAE J2286 supersede the requirements defined by SAE J1924.
Magazine

SAE Off-Highway Engineering 2009-10-01

2009-10-01
Heavy-duty issues Top industry insiders provide their perspectives on critical issues such as sustainability, workforce development, and future growth at this year's Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress and Exhibition. Autonomouse vehicles go off-highway Advances in sensors, CPUs, and software help in the druve to eliminate drivers. Power and precision Hydraulic motors and actuators evolve along two paths, both relying on advanced controls.
Book

Enterprise Information Security and Privacy

2009-01-01
Here’s a unique and practical book that addresses the rapidly growing problem of information security, privacy, and secrecy threats and vulnerabilities. This authoritative resource helps you understand what really needs to be done to protect sensitive data and systems and how to comply with the burgeoning roster of data protection laws and regulations. The book examines the effectiveness and weaknesses of current approaches and guides you towards practical methods and doable processes that can bring about real improvement in the overall security environment. You gain insight into the latest security and privacy trends, learn how to determine and mitigate risks, and discover the specific dangers and responses regarding the most critical sectors of a modern economy.
Standard

DATALINK SECURITY PART 2 - KEY MANAGEMENT

2008-03-10
CURRENT
ARINC823P2
The purpose of this document is to provide recommended guidance and provisions for ACARS Message Security (AMS) key management. The key management framework described herein is based on open international standards that are adapted to the ACARS datalink communications environment.
Standard

DATALINK SECURITY PART 1 - ACARS MESSAGE SECURITY

2007-12-10
CURRENT
ARINC823P1
The purpose of this document is to provide an industry standard for ACARS Message Security (AMS), which permits ACARS datalink messages to be exchanged between aircraft and ground systems in a secure, authenticated manner using a uniform security framework. The security framework described herein is based on open international standards that are adapted to the ACARS datalink communications environment.
Standard

COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT INFORMATION SECURITY CONCEPTS OF OPERATION AND PROCESS FRAMEWORK

2005-12-20
CURRENT
ARINC811
The purpose of this document is to facilitate an understanding of aircraft information security and to develop aircraft information security operational concepts. This common understanding is important since a number of subcommittees and working groups within the aeronautical industry are considering aircraft information security. This document also provides an aircraft information security process framework relating to airline operational needs that, when implemented by an airline and its suppliers, will enable the safe and secure dispatch of the aircraft in a timely manner. This framework facilitates development of cost-effective aircraft information security and provides a common language for understanding security needs.
Standard

E/E Data Link Security

2005-06-27
HISTORICAL
J2186_200506
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform practice for protecting vehicle components from "unauthorized" access through a vehicle data link connector (DLC). The document defines a security system for motor vehicle and tool manufacturers. It will provide flexibility to tailor systems to the security needs of the vehicle manufacturer. The vehicle modules addressed are those that are capable of having solid state memory contents accessed or altered through the data link connector. Improper memory content alteration could potentially damage the electronics or other vehicle modules; risk the vehicle compliance to government legislated requirements; or risk the vehicle manufacturer's security interests. This document does not imply that other security measures are not required nor possible.
Book

Energy in the 21st Century (2nd Edition)

2004-01-01
This book, in its second edition, examines the energy sources that play a vital role in society today, as well as those that may be the primary energy sources of tomorrow. From our reliance on fossil fuels to the quest for energy independence, and the environmental issues that follow each decision, this book delves into the most prominent energy issues of our time. Armed with this information, the reader can think critically about the direction they want this world to take. Contents: Brief History of Energy Consumption Fossil Energy - Coal Fossil Energy - Oil and Gas Peak Oil Nuclear Energy Renewable Energy - Solar Energy Renewable Energy - Wind Energy Renewable Energy - Energy from Water Renewable Energy - Bioenergy and Synfuels Energy Carrier, Energy Storage and Hybrid Energy Systems Electricity Generation and Distribution Energy Economics Future Issues - Geopolitics of Energy Future Issues - Energy Forecasts
Standard

Deliverable Aerospace Software Supplement for AS9100A Quality Management Systems - Aerospace - Requirements for Software (based on AS9100A)

2003-03-12
HISTORICAL
AS9006
The basic requirements of AS9100A apply with the following clarifications. This document supplements the requirements of AS9100A for deliverable software. This supplement contains Quality System requirements for suppliers of products that contain deliverable embedded or loadable airborne, spaceborne or ground support software components that are part of an aircraft Type Design, weapon system, missile or spacecraft operational software and/or support software that is used in the development and maintenance of deliverable software. This includes the host operating system software including assemblers, compilers, linkers, loaders, editors, code generators, analyzers, ground simulators and trainers, flight test data reduction, etc., that directly support creation, test and maintenance of the deliverable software.
Standard

Data Security Services

2001-12-26
HISTORICAL
J1760_200112
The scope of this SAE Recommended Practice is to require the use of the same Security Services as defined by the International Standard ISO/CD 15764, modified by the Class of Security as determined by the resource provider and referenced in Table 1, Extended Data Link Security References.
Technical Paper

EncryptionS Role in Vehicle Information Security

1998-10-19
98C044
A broad range of information is being delivered to and used within modern vehicles. Information-based applications are becoming more highly integrated into the automobile. Security services are necessary to provide appropriate protection for this information. Encryption, digital signature, and hash functionalities enable information security services such as confidentiality, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation. However, the consumer of in-vehicle information services will not accept security services that introduce any inconvenience to their activities. This paper will discuss various security service methods and security management systems and propose methods to integrate these services acceptably into vehicle-based applications.
Standard

VENDOR COMPONENT PROGRAM DATA FILE INTERFACE FOR OEM ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS

1997-02-01
HISTORICAL
J2286_199702
This interface document SAE J2286 revises the requirements for file formats as described in SAE J1924. This document describes Interface 1 (I/F 1) in SAE J2214. This document does not imply the use of a specific hardware interface, but may be used with other hardware interfaces such as SAE J1939. The requirements of SAE J2286 supersede the requirements defined by SAE J1924.
Standard

E/E DATA LINK SECURITY

1996-10-01
HISTORICAL
J2186_199610
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform practice for protecting vehicle components from "unauthorized" access through a vehicle data link connector (DLC). The document defines a security system for motor vehicle and tool manufacturers. It will provide flexibility to tailor systems to the security needs of the vehicle manufacturer. The vehicle modules addressed are those that are capable of having solid state memory contents accessed or altered through the data link connector. Improper memory content alteration could potentially damage the electronics or other vehicle modules; risk the vehicle compliance to government legislated requirements; or risk the vehicle manufacturer's security interests. This document does not imply that other security measures are not required nor possible.
Standard

EXPANDED DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL FOR OBD II SCAN TOOLS

1995-12-01
HISTORICAL
J2205_199512
This SAE Recommended Practice defines the Expanded Diagnostic Protocol (EDP), the requirements for the SAE J1978 OBD II Scan Tool for supporting the EDP protocol, and associated requirements for diagnosis and service information to be provided by motor vehicle manufacturers. Appendix A includes worked examples of the use of the protocol.
Standard

EXPANDED DIAGNOSTIC PROTOCOL FOR OBD II SCAN TOOLS

1994-06-01
HISTORICAL
J2205_199406
This SAE Recommended Practice defines the Expanded Diagnostic Protocol (EDP), the requirements for the SAE J1978 OBD II Scan Tool for supporting the EDP protocol, and associated requirements for diagnosis and service information to be provided by motor vehicle manufacturers. Appendix A includes worked examples of the use of the protocol.
Standard

NATIONAL AEROSPACE AND DEFENSE CONTRACTORS ACCREDITATION PROGRAM (NADCAP) REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCREDITATION OF PASS THROUGH DISTRIBUTORS

1993-06-24
HISTORICAL
AS7103
This aerospace standard outlines the minimum requirements for the quality assurance program of a distributor of new aircraft or aerospace parts and material. It is designed to aid in the surveillance and accreditation of a distributor who procures new parts and materials and resells these products to customers or other distributors in the aviation or aerospace industry, i.e., a PASS THROUGH distributor. This standard may be used to determine the adequacy and implementation of the distributor’s quality assurance program.
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