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Book

The New Future of Public Transportation

2024-04-11
From hydrogen-fueled buses to AI-driven advancements and cybersecurity, this book offers an unparalleled glimpse into the future of transit. Navigate the complexities of transit planning in a post-COVID world, where innovative solutions are essential to tackle infrastructure challenges and workforce shortages.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity in the Context of Fail-Operational Systems

2024-04-09
2024-01-2808
The development of highly automated driving functions (AD) recently rises the demand for so called Fail-Operational systems for native driving functions like steering and braking of vehicles. Fail-Operational systems shall guarantee the availability of driving functions even in presence of failures. This can also mean a degradation of system performance or limiting a system’s remaining operating period. In either case, the goal is independency from a human driver as a permanently situation-aware safety fallback solution to provide a certain level of autonomy. In parallel, the connectivity of modern vehicles is increasing rapidly and especially in vehicles with highly automated functions, there is a high demand for connected functions, Infotainment (web conference, Internet, Shopping) and Entertainment (Streaming, Gaming) to entertain the passengers, who should no longer occupied with driving tasks.
Technical Paper

A Zero Trust Architecture for Automotive Networks

2024-04-09
2024-01-2793
Since the early 1990’s, commercial vehicles have suffered from repeated vulnerability exploitations that resulted in a need for improved automotive cybersecurity. This paper outlines the strategies and challenges of implementing an automotive Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) to secure intra-vehicle networks. ...This research successfully met the four requirements and demonstrated that using ZT principles in an on-vehicle network greatly improved the cybersecurity posture with manageable impact to system performance and deployment.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E Architecture and Key Technologies Enabling Software-Defined Vehicle

2024-04-09
2024-01-2035
This paper gives a definition of the SDV concept, provides views from different aspects, discusses the progress in vehicle E/E architecture, especially zone-based architecture with centralized computation, and various technologies including High-Performance Computing (HPC) platform, standardized vehicle software architecture, advanced onboard communication, Over-The-Air (OTA) update, and cybersecurity etc. that collectively enable the realization of SDV.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Requirements and Specifications of a Digital Thread in Aircraft Data Life Cycle Management

2024-03-05
2024-01-1946
The aircraft lifecycle involves thousands of transactions and an enormous amount of data being exchanged across the stakeholders in the aircraft ecosystem. This data pertains to various aircraft life cycle stages such as design, manufacturing, certification, operations, maintenance, and disposal of the aircraft. All participants in the aerospace ecosystem want to leverage the data to deliver insight and add value to their customers through existing and new services while protecting their own intellectual property. The exchange of data between stakeholders in the ecosystem is involved and growing exponentially. This necessitates the need for standards on data interoperability to support efficient maintenance, logistics, operations, and design improvements for both commercial and military aircraft ecosystems. A digital thread defines an approach and a system which connects the data flows and represents a holistic view of an asset data across its lifecycle.
Journal Article

Employing a Model of Computation for Testing and Verifying the Security of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

2024-03-05
Abstract Testing and verifying the security of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) under cyber-physical attacks is a critical challenge for ensuring their safety and reliability. Proposed in this article is a novel testing framework based on a model of computation that generates scenarios and attacks in a closed-loop manner, while measuring the safety of the unit under testing (UUT), using a verification vector. The framework was applied for testing the performance of two cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) controllers under false data injection (FDI) attacks. Serving as the baseline controller is one of a traditional design, while the proposed controller uses a resilient design that combines a model and learning-based algorithm to detect and mitigate FDI attacks in real-time.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2024

2024-02-15
Hyliion shifts focus from propulsion to power generation Prime power and EV charging are two areas that can benefit from the Karno linear generator beginning later this year. Intensifying pursuit of autonomous trucks Daimler Truck and Torc have established a clear roadmap that brings SAE level 4 trucks to the U.S. market by 2027. Commercial-truck EV fleets slow to grow Even for the largest players, the underdeveloped charging ecosystem is hampering commercial-truck fleets' electrification efforts.
Book

Aerospace Standards Index - 2024

2024-02-12
This valuable resource lists all Aerospace Standards (AS), Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP), Aerospace Information Reports (AIR), and Aerospace Resource Documents (ARD) published by SAE. Each listing includes title, subject, document number, key words, new and revised documents, and DODISS-adopted documents. AMS Index - Now Available!
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: February 2024

2024-02-08
Certified Machine Learning-Based Avionics: Unlocking Safer Revolutionizing Electronic Warfare: Unleashing the Power of High-Performance Software Defined Radios Deterministic and Modular Architecture for Embedded Vehicle Systems Approximating the Material Stresses and System Requirements for Hypersonic Flight Design Approaches for Established and Emerging RF Receiver Architectures Rydberg Technologies Shows Potential of Long-Range RF with Quantum Sensor at NetModX23 New Method to Measure Wind Speed Could Unlock Drones' Potential A fundamentally different approach to wind estimation using unmanned aircraft than the vast majority of existing methods. This method uses no on-board flow sensor and does not attempt to estimate thrust or drag forces. Report on Human Factors Issues Likely to Affect Air-Launched Effects This report reviews human factors research on the supervision of multiple unmanned vehicles (UVs) as it affects human integration with Air-Launched Effects (ALE).
Technical Paper

The Operation Phase as the Currently Underestimated Phase of the (Safety and Legal) Product Lifecycle of Autonomous Vehicles for SAE L3/L4 – Lessons Learned from Existing European Operations and Development of a Deployment and Surveillance Blueprint

2023-12-29
2023-01-1906
Advanced Autonomous Vehicles (AV) for SAE Level 3 and Level 4 functions will lead to a new understanding of the operation phase in the overall product lifecycle. Regulations such as the EU Implementing Act and the German L4 Act (AFGBV) request a continuous field surveillance, the handling of critical E/E faults and software updates during operation. This is required to enhance the Operational Design Domain (ODD) during operation, offering Functions on Demand (FoD), by increasing software features within these autonomous vehicle systems over the entire digital product lifecycle, and to avoid and reduce downtime by a malfunction of the Autonomous Driving (AD) software stack.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: December 2023

2023-12-07
Looking past ADAS Advances in perception hardware and software deliver new performance possibilities - and a refreshed vision for passenger-vehicle driving automation. Provizio eyes safety with radar, not lidar Provizio promises its 5D Perception stack can safely compete with expensive lidar sensors at a fraction of the cost. Can solid-state batteries commercialize by 2030? Solid-state batteries are facing a reckoning as OEMs attempt to commercialize the technology. Editorial Change?
Journal Article

A Global Survey of Standardization and Industry Practices of Automotive Cybersecurity Validation and Verification Testing Processes and Tools

2023-11-16
Abstract The United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation 155—Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Management System (UN R155) mandates the development of cybersecurity management systems (CSMS) as part of a vehicle’s lifecycle. ...Due to the focus of R155 and its suggested implementation guideline, ISO/SAE 21434:2021—Road Vehicle Cybersecurity Engineering, mainly centering on the alignment of cybersecurity risk management to the vehicle development lifecycle, there is a gap in knowledge of proscribed activities for validation and verification testing. ...An inherent component of the CSMS is cybersecurity risk management and assessment. Validation and verification testing is a key activity for measuring the effectiveness of risk management, and it is mandated by UN R155 for type approval.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: November 2023

2023-11-09
Editorial Automated driving's continuing mission: One step forward… The Navigator Are robotaxis ready for prime time? AV Simulation Faces a Long and Winding Road There are many divergent-but-related ideas about how best to leverage simulation to 'teach' and test automated vehicles. Global AV simulation experts continue to attack the technology's persistent obstacles. DOT's 'Framework' for AV Development The U.S. Department of Transportation establishes structure to advance collaborative AV testing. The Chaos of Automotive Data Privacy Regulators and other privacy advocates believe vehicle-related data collection and brokering is in overdrive. One expert believes a day of reckoning is coming. Simulation Developer rFpro Mimics Vehicle Sensors 'Ray-tracing' software enables the training of ADAS systems entirely by simulation. Eight of the top 10 OEMs are using it. New Tools & Technologies
Journal Article

A Study on Secured Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Fog Computing Networks

2023-11-03
Abstract With the recent advancement in technologies, researchers worldwide have a growing interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The last few years have been significant in terms of its global awareness, adoption, and applications across industries. In UAV-aided wireless networks, there are some limitations in terms of power consumption, data computation, data processing, endurance, and security. So, the idea of UAVs and Edge or Fog computing together deals with the limitations and provides intelligence at the network’s edge, which makes it more valuable to use in emergency applications. Fog computing distributes data in a decentralized way and blockchain also works on the principle of decentralization. Blockchain, as a decentralized database, uses cryptographic methods including hash functions and public key encryption to secure the user information. It is a prominent solution to secure the user’s information in blocks and maintain privacy.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2023

2023-10-05
DoD to Deploy Thousands of Low Cost Autonomous Systems Under Replicator Program Top Productivity Improvement Tips for Manufacturing Turbine Discs FACE Technical Standard Offers MOSA Lessons for Safety-Critical Software in Any Sector Adamant: A Soon-to-be Open Source, Mission-Critical Flight Software Framework Written in Ada Benefits and Challenges of Direct-RF Sampling for Avionic Platforms More Airports Test RF as Counter Measure for UAS in Restricted Airspace Adapting U.S. Army Acquisition to Ensure the Reliability and Safety of Autonomous Vehicles This report presents several challenges that the U.S. Army will face in the transition to autonomous vehicles, challenges that are only magnified in the current acquisition environment with limited testing. Artificial intelligence algorithms introduce additional complexity, resulting in systems with a complex combination of human, machine, and autonomous controllers.
Journal Article

A Deep Neural Network Attack Simulation against Data Storage of Autonomous Vehicles

2023-09-29
Abstract In the pursuit of advancing autonomous vehicles (AVs), data-driven algorithms have become pivotal in replacing human perception and decision-making. While deep neural networks (DNNs) hold promise for perception tasks, the potential for catastrophic consequences due to algorithmic flaws is concerning. A well-known incident in 2016, involving a Tesla autopilot misidentifying a white truck as a cloud, underscores the risks and security vulnerabilities. In this article, we present a novel threat model and risk assessment (TARA) analysis on AV data storage, delving into potential threats and damage scenarios. Specifically, we focus on DNN parameter manipulation attacks, evaluating their impact on three distinct algorithms for traffic sign classification and lane assist.
Journal Article

A Quantitative Analysis of Autonomous Vehicle Cybersecurity as a Component of Trust

2023-08-10
Abstract Connected autonomous vehicles that employ internet connectivity are technologically complex, which makes them vulnerable to cyberattacks. Many cybersecurity researchers, white hat hackers, and black hat hackers have discovered numerous exploitable vulnerabilities in connected vehicles. ...This study expanded the technology acceptance model (TAM) to include cybersecurity and level of trust as determinants of technology acceptance. This study surveyed a diverse sample of 209 licensed US drivers over 18 years old.
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