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SAE EDGE™ Research Reports - Publications

SAE EDGE Research Reports provide examinations significant topics facing mobility industry today including Connected Automated Vehicle Technologies Electrification Advanced Manufacturing
Technical Paper

Safety, ADAS, and Cybersecurity: Vol. 2

And as much as there are technical questions regarding network latency, bandwidth, cybersecurity, etc., aspects like human workload, attentiveness, and situational awareness also need to be clarified.
Technical Paper

Safety, ADAS, and Cybersecurity: Vol. 1

This chapter delves into the field of multi-agent collaborative perception (MCP) for autonomous driving: an area that remains unresolved. Current single-agent perception systems suffer from limitations, such as occlusion and sparse sensor observation at a far distance. To address this, three unsettled topics have been identified that demand immediate attention. First, it is crucial to establish normative communication protocols to facilitate seamless information sharing among vehicles. Second, collaboration strategies need to be defined, including identifying the need for specific collaboration projects, determining the collaboration partners, defining the content of collaboration, and establishing the integration mechanism. Finally, collecting sufficient data for MCP model training is vital. This includes capturing diverse modal data and labeling various downstream tasks as accurately as possible.
Technical Paper

Transportation Ecosystem and Autonomy: Vol. 2

And as much as there are technical questions regarding network latency, bandwidth, cybersecurity, etc., aspects like human workload, attentiveness, and situational awareness also need to be clarified.
Research Report

Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles

On the other hand, the potential risks associated with CAV deployment related to technical vulnerabilities are safety and cybersecurity issues that may arise from flawed hardware and software. Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles elaborates on these topics as unsettled cybersecurity and digital trust issues in CAVs and follows with recommendations to fill in the gaps in this evolving field. ...Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles elaborates on these topics as unsettled cybersecurity and digital trust issues in CAVs and follows with recommendations to fill in the gaps in this evolving field. ...This report also highlights the importance of establishing robust cybersecurity protocols and fostering digital trust in these vehicles to ensure safe and secure deployment in our modern transportation system.

The New Future of Public Transportation

From hydrogen-fueled buses to AI-driven advancements and cybersecurity, this book offers an unparalleled glimpse into the future of transit. Navigate the complexities of transit planning in a post-COVID world, where innovative solutions are essential to tackle infrastructure challenges and workforce shortages.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E Architecture and Key Technologies Enabling Software-Defined Vehicle

This paper gives a definition of the SDV concept, provides views from different aspects, discusses the progress in vehicle E/E architecture, especially zone-based architecture with centralized computation, and various technologies including High-Performance Computing (HPC) platform, standardized vehicle software architecture, advanced onboard communication, Over-The-Air (OTA) update, and cybersecurity etc. that collectively enable the realization of SDV.
Journal Article

Employing a Model of Computation for Testing and Verifying the Security of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

Abstract Testing and verifying the security of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) under cyber-physical attacks is a critical challenge for ensuring their safety and reliability. Proposed in this article is a novel testing framework based on a model of computation that generates scenarios and attacks in a closed-loop manner, while measuring the safety of the unit under testing (UUT), using a verification vector. The framework was applied for testing the performance of two cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) controllers under false data injection (FDI) attacks. Serving as the baseline controller is one of a traditional design, while the proposed controller uses a resilient design that combines a model and learning-based algorithm to detect and mitigate FDI attacks in real-time.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2024

Hyliion shifts focus from propulsion to power generation Prime power and EV charging are two areas that can benefit from the Karno linear generator beginning later this year. Intensifying pursuit of autonomous trucks Daimler Truck and Torc have established a clear roadmap that brings SAE level 4 trucks to the U.S. market by 2027. Commercial-truck EV fleets slow to grow Even for the largest players, the underdeveloped charging ecosystem is hampering commercial-truck fleets' electrification efforts.
Technical Paper

The Operation Phase as the Currently Underestimated Phase of the (Safety and Legal) Product Lifecycle of Autonomous Vehicles for SAE L3/L4 – Lessons Learned from Existing European Operations and Development of a Deployment and Surveillance Blueprint

Advanced Autonomous Vehicles (AV) for SAE Level 3 and Level 4 functions will lead to a new understanding of the operation phase in the overall product lifecycle. Regulations such as the EU Implementing Act and the German L4 Act (AFGBV) request a continuous field surveillance, the handling of critical E/E faults and software updates during operation. This is required to enhance the Operational Design Domain (ODD) during operation, offering Functions on Demand (FoD), by increasing software features within these autonomous vehicle systems over the entire digital product lifecycle, and to avoid and reduce downtime by a malfunction of the Autonomous Driving (AD) software stack.
Journal Article

A Global Survey of Standardization and Industry Practices of Automotive Cybersecurity Validation and Verification Testing Processes and Tools

Abstract The United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation 155—Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Management System (UN R155) mandates the development of cybersecurity management systems (CSMS) as part of a vehicle’s lifecycle. ...Due to the focus of R155 and its suggested implementation guideline, ISO/SAE 21434:2021—Road Vehicle Cybersecurity Engineering, mainly centering on the alignment of cybersecurity risk management to the vehicle development lifecycle, there is a gap in knowledge of proscribed activities for validation and verification testing. ...An inherent component of the CSMS is cybersecurity risk management and assessment. Validation and verification testing is a key activity for measuring the effectiveness of risk management, and it is mandated by UN R155 for type approval.

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: November 2023

Editorial Automated driving's continuing mission: One step forward… The Navigator Are robotaxis ready for prime time? AV Simulation Faces a Long and Winding Road There are many divergent-but-related ideas about how best to leverage simulation to 'teach' and test automated vehicles. Global AV simulation experts continue to attack the technology's persistent obstacles. DOT's 'Framework' for AV Development The U.S. Department of Transportation establishes structure to advance collaborative AV testing. The Chaos of Automotive Data Privacy Regulators and other privacy advocates believe vehicle-related data collection and brokering is in overdrive. One expert believes a day of reckoning is coming. Simulation Developer rFpro Mimics Vehicle Sensors 'Ray-tracing' software enables the training of ADAS systems entirely by simulation. Eight of the top 10 OEMs are using it. New Tools & Technologies

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2023

DoD to Deploy Thousands of Low Cost Autonomous Systems Under Replicator Program Top Productivity Improvement Tips for Manufacturing Turbine Discs FACE Technical Standard Offers MOSA Lessons for Safety-Critical Software in Any Sector Adamant: A Soon-to-be Open Source, Mission-Critical Flight Software Framework Written in Ada Benefits and Challenges of Direct-RF Sampling for Avionic Platforms More Airports Test RF as Counter Measure for UAS in Restricted Airspace Adapting U.S. Army Acquisition to Ensure the Reliability and Safety of Autonomous Vehicles This report presents several challenges that the U.S. Army will face in the transition to autonomous vehicles, challenges that are only magnified in the current acquisition environment with limited testing. Artificial intelligence algorithms introduce additional complexity, resulting in systems with a complex combination of human, machine, and autonomous controllers.
Journal Article

A Deep Neural Network Attack Simulation against Data Storage of Autonomous Vehicles

Abstract In the pursuit of advancing autonomous vehicles (AVs), data-driven algorithms have become pivotal in replacing human perception and decision-making. While deep neural networks (DNNs) hold promise for perception tasks, the potential for catastrophic consequences due to algorithmic flaws is concerning. A well-known incident in 2016, involving a Tesla autopilot misidentifying a white truck as a cloud, underscores the risks and security vulnerabilities. In this article, we present a novel threat model and risk assessment (TARA) analysis on AV data storage, delving into potential threats and damage scenarios. Specifically, we focus on DNN parameter manipulation attacks, evaluating their impact on three distinct algorithms for traffic sign classification and lane assist.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: September 2023

How Thunderbolt 4 Helps Bring Fault-Tolerant, Distributed Systems to Market Delivering Operational Energy to Enhance Warfighter Capability Optoelectronic Analog Signal Transmission Takes Center Stage Amidst Aerospace and Defense Innovation Shaking Outside the Box to Advance Flight Research An Introduction to Quantum Computing How Laser Communications Innovation is Finally Coming of Age and Driving Innovation in Defense Spatial Calibration for Accurate Long Distance Measurement Using Infrared Cameras A new spatial calibration procedure has been introduced for infrared optical systems developed for cases where camera systems are required to be focused at distances beyond 100 meters. Towards Greater Sensitivity: A Brief FTIR and Infrared-Based Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy Comparative Study A presentation of work comparing efficacy of a traditional IR method used as a standard within the U.S.
Journal Article

A Quantitative Analysis of Autonomous Vehicle Cybersecurity as a Component of Trust

Abstract Connected autonomous vehicles that employ internet connectivity are technologically complex, which makes them vulnerable to cyberattacks. Many cybersecurity researchers, white hat hackers, and black hat hackers have discovered numerous exploitable vulnerabilities in connected vehicles. ...This study expanded the technology acceptance model (TAM) to include cybersecurity and level of trust as determinants of technology acceptance. This study surveyed a diverse sample of 209 licensed US drivers over 18 years old.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2023

Headliners from Las Vegas Big reveals abounded at the triennial CONEXPO trade show. Following are some of the most notable unveilings from the desert. Cat doubles down on diesel with new C13D platform Deere pursues electric construction machines and charging infrastructure JCB debuts clean-sheet hydrogen combustion engine Volvo CE unveils electric asphalt compactor, announces NA arrival of L350H loader Honda reveals next-gen Autonomous Work Vehicle Deere 3D-prints fuel valves for tractors HP's binder jetting technology and GKN's manufacturing expertise helped John Deere realize its first 3D-printed metal part for mass production. Returning to the SAE presidency for 2023 Setting a "prudently aggressive" mindset in advancing SAE's goals in the mobility ecosystem.
Best Practice

AVSC Information Report for Change Risk Management

AVSC Information Report for Change Risk Management AVSC00010202304 provides a process for change risk management for fleet-operated ADS-DVs using level 4 or 5 automation. The document addresses risks resulting from planned and unplanned changes in an ADS-DV design and/or operation. This information report is based on the concept of risk-informed decision-making. Making risk management decisions such as safety and change management, safety analysis, and safety assurance are especially applicable when moving from concept to production intent for the ADS-DV. Change Risk Management (CRM) does not replace best practices or other methods for managing safety anomalies or change management processes. It may instead be viewed as an additional resource that elaborates on how safety anomaly management and change management can be performed.
Technical Paper

Access Control Requirements for Autonomous Robotic Fleets

Access control enforces security policies for controlling critical resources. For V2X (Vehicle to Everything) autonomous military vehicle fleets, network middleware systems such as ROS (Robotic Operating System) expose system resources through networked publisher/subscriber and client/server paradigms. Without proper access control, these systems are vulnerable to attacks from compromised network nodes, which may perform data poisoning attacks, flood packets on a network, or attempt to gain lateral control of other resources. Access control for robotic middleware systems has been investigated in both ROS1 and ROS2. Still, these implementations do not have mechanisms for evaluating a policy's consistency and completeness or writing expressive policies for distributed fleets. We explore an RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) mechanism layered onto ROS environments that uses local permission caches with precomputed truth tables for fast policy evaluation.