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Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2023

2023-04-13
Headliners from Las Vegas Big reveals abounded at the triennial CONEXPO trade show. Following are some of the most notable unveilings from the desert. Cat doubles down on diesel with new C13D platform Deere pursues electric construction machines and charging infrastructure JCB debuts clean-sheet hydrogen combustion engine Volvo CE unveils electric asphalt compactor, announces NA arrival of L350H loader Honda reveals next-gen Autonomous Work Vehicle Deere 3D-prints fuel valves for tractors HP's binder jetting technology and GKN's manufacturing expertise helped John Deere realize its first 3D-printed metal part for mass production. Returning to the SAE presidency for 2023 Setting a "prudently aggressive" mindset in advancing SAE's goals in the mobility ecosystem.
Best Practice

AVSC Information Report for Change Risk Management

2023-04-12
CURRENT
AVSC00010202304
AVSC Information Report for Change Risk Management AVSC00010202304 provides a process for change risk management for fleet-operated ADS-DVs using level 4 or 5 automation. The document addresses risks resulting from planned and unplanned changes in an ADS-DV design and/or operation. This information report is based on the concept of risk-informed decision-making. Making risk management decisions such as safety and change management, safety analysis, and safety assurance are especially applicable when moving from concept to production intent for the ADS-DV. Change Risk Management (CRM) does not replace best practices or other methods for managing safety anomalies or change management processes. It may instead be viewed as an additional resource that elaborates on how safety anomaly management and change management can be performed.
Technical Paper

Access Control Requirements for Autonomous Robotic Fleets

2023-04-11
2023-01-0104
Access control enforces security policies for controlling critical resources. For V2X (Vehicle to Everything) autonomous military vehicle fleets, network middleware systems such as ROS (Robotic Operating System) expose system resources through networked publisher/subscriber and client/server paradigms. Without proper access control, these systems are vulnerable to attacks from compromised network nodes, which may perform data poisoning attacks, flood packets on a network, or attempt to gain lateral control of other resources. Access control for robotic middleware systems has been investigated in both ROS1 and ROS2. Still, these implementations do not have mechanisms for evaluating a policy's consistency and completeness or writing expressive policies for distributed fleets. We explore an RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) mechanism layered onto ROS environments that uses local permission caches with precomputed truth tables for fast policy evaluation.
Technical Paper

Challenges with the Introduction of X-By-Wire Technologies to Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks in regards to Functional Safety, Cybersecurity and Availability

2023-04-11
2023-01-0581
Classic vehicle production had limitations in bringing the driving commands to the actuators for vehicle motion (engine, steering and braking). Steering columns, hydraulic tubes or steel cables needed to be placed between the driver and actuator. Change began with the introduction of e-gas systems. Mechanical cables were replaced by thin, electric signal wires. The technical solutions and legal standardizations for addressing the steering and braking systems, were not defined at this time. Today, OEMs are starting E/E-Architecture transformations for manifold reasons and now have the chance to remove the long hydraulic tubes for braking and the solid metal columns used for steering. X-by-wire is the way forward and allows for higher Autonomous Driving (AD) levels for automated driving vehicles. This offers new opportunities to design the vehicle in-cabin space. This paper will start with the introduction of x-by-wire technologies.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Security by Design Approach for Ensuring a Secured Remote Monitoring Teleoperation (RMTO) of an Autonomous Vehicle

2023-04-11
2023-01-0579
The separation of cybersecurity considerations in RMTO is barely considered, as so far, most available research and activities are mainly focused on AV. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. An adaptable security-by-design approach for RMTO covers Security Engineering Life-cycle, Logical Security Layered Concept, and Security Architecture.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Automotive Requirements Analysis

2023-04-11
2023-01-0864
Automotive system functionalities spread over a wide range of sub-domains ranging from non-driving related components to complex autonomous driving related components. The requirements to design and develop these components span across software, hardware, firmware, etc. elements. The successful development of these components to achieve the needs from the stockholders requires accurate understanding and traceability of the requirements of these component systems. The high-level customer requirements transformation into low level granularity requires an efficient requirement engineer. The manual understanding of the customer requirements from the requirement documents are influenced by the context and the knowledge gap of the requirement engineer in understanding and transforming the requirements.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: April 2023

2023-04-06
Breathing Life into Artificial Intelligence and Next Generation Autonomous Aerospace Systems Robotic Rotational Molding Creates New Opportunities for Military and Aerospace Applications Rim-Driven Electric Aircraft Propulsion High-Speed Midwave Infrared Cameras Enable Military Test Range Tracking System What Today's Advances in Radar Technology Mean for Testing and Training Tackling Ruggedization Challenges for RF Communications in Software Defined Radios AUVSI XPONENTIAL 2023 The Blueprint for Autonomy Multi-Scale Structuring of the Polar Ionosphere Understanding a radically new sensing capability for polar ionospheric science introduced by observational evidence recently provided by the electronically steerable Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR). Stepped-Frequency Distributed Radar for Through-the-Wall Sensing A technical analysis of the effectiveness of distributed radar for through-the-wall sensing applications.
Standard

Diagnostic Link Connector Security

2022-10-04
CURRENT
J3138_202210
This document describes a set of recommended actions to take to increase the likelihood of safe vehicle operation when a device (external test equipment, data collection device, etc.) whose normal operation has been compromised by a source external to the vehicle is connected to the vehicle’s diagnostic system. The term “diagnostic system” is intended to be a generic way to reference all the different ways that diagnostic commands might be injected into the system. The guidance in this document is intended to improve security without significantly impacting the ability for franchised dealer or independent aftermarket external test tools to perform legitimate diagnosis and maintenance functions. The goal is that intrusive services are only allowed to be performed when the vehicle is in a Safe State such that even if the intrusive service were to be initiated with adversarial intent the consequences of such a service would still be acceptable.
Journal Article

Wireless Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

2022-08-17
Abstract Vehicular communications face unique security issues in wireless communications. While new vehicles are equipped with a large set of communication technologies, product life cycles are long and software updates are not widespread. The result is a host of outdated and unpatched technologies being used on the street. This has especially severe security impacts because autonomous vehicles are pushing into the market, which will rely, at least partly, on the integrity of the provided information. We provide an overview of the currently deployed communication systems and their security weaknesses and features to collect and compare widely used security mechanisms. In this survey, we focus on technologies that work in an ad hoc manner. This includes Long-Term Evolution mode 4 (LTE-PC5), Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), Intelligent Transportation Systems at 5 Gigahertz (ITS-G5), and Bluetooth.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2022

2022-08-04
Deere advances in-field autonomy While stereo cameras and computer vision guide Deere's "limited- release" 8R autonomous tractor, Bear Flag's lidar tech will augment future machines. Positioning to centimeter-level improves agriculture Precision-navigation approaches that emphasize backward compatibility help farms reap more value from autonomous operations. Funding, mandates fuel commercial-vehicle electrification Legislators provide the impetus to electrify trucks and buses, leading to several engineering challenges.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2022

2022-07-01
An Holistic Approach to Verifying Cybersecurity in Design A powerful new generation of test and sim solutions aims to address specific security concerns associated with automotive designs.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into a CI Pipeline for Automotive Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0117
With the rapid development of connected and autonomous vehicles, more sophisticated automotive systems running large portions of software and implementing a variety of communication interfaces are being developed. The ever-expanding codebase increases the risk for software vulnerabilities, while at the same time the large number of communication interfaces make the systems more susceptible to be targeted by attackers. As such, it is of utmost importance for automotive organizations to identify potential vulnerabilities early and continuously in the development lifecycle in an automated manner. In this paper, we suggest a practical approach for integrating fuzz testing into a Continuous Integration (CI) pipeline for automotive systems. As a first step, we have performed a Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment (TARA) of a general E/E architecture to identify high-risk interfaces and functions.
Technical Paper

Requirements for the Automated Generation of Attack Trees to Support Automotive Cybersecurity Assurance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0124
Although ISO/SAE 21434 recommends the development of an assurance case for cybersecurity, the precise nature of a cybersecurity case is not explicitly defined within the standard. ...In the case of cybersecurity, this problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of vehicular onboard systems, their inherent obscurity due to their heterogenous architecture, emergent behaviors, and the disparate motivations and resources of potential threat agents.
Journal Article

Physics-Based Misbehavior Detection System for V2X Communications

2022-03-04
Abstract Vehicle to Everything (V2X) allows vehicles, pedestrians, and infrastructure to share information for the purpose of preventing accidents, enhancing road safety, and improving the efficiency and energy consumption of transportation. Although V2X messages are authenticated, their content is not validated. Sensor errors or adversarial attacks can cause messages to be perturbed and, therefore, increase the likelihood of traffic jams, compromise the decision process of other vehicles, or provoke fatal crashes. In this article, we introduce V2X Core Anomaly Detection System (VCADS), a system based on the theory presented in [1] and built for the fields provided in the periodic messages shared across vehicles (i.e., Basic Safety Messages, BSMs). VCADS uses physics-based models to constrain the values in each field and detect anomalies by finding the numerical difference between a field and independent derivations of the same field.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2021

2021-09-02
Editorial Fool Self-Driving II The Navigator What will result from NHTSA's Tesla Autopilot investigation? Data Drives Driverless Truck Launch Smart diagnostics and advanced validation help support the reliability metrics required to gain confidence that autonomous trucks are ready for the road. Peering into the Distance New sensors of all types look out longer distances - and provide higher resolutions - for engineers pushing ADAS capabilities and higher-level vehicle automation. Ford Drives into SAE Level 2 Driver monitoring was an essential component to engineering the new "hands-free" BlueCruise/Active Glide enhanced ADAS system. A Chore No More? The Detroit Smart Parking Lab opens to develop and test emerging parking technology in real-world settings. Share and Share Alike The concepts of rideshare and urban mobility continue to evolve as new projects test what's possible.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2021

2021-07-01
Editorial Follow the money The Navigator C-V2X is finally gaining momentum in the U.S. Making the Strategic Move Into AV Testing Having built its global engineering reputation in the combustion-engine era, FEV makes a critical leap into automated-vehicle testing. Sony Jumps Into AV Sensors, Software The consumer-electronics giant leverages its innovative technologies for ADAS prototypes and partners with Hungary-based AImotive for automated-driving software. Mitigating Radar-to-Radar Interference An effective radar interference mitigation strategy should have the right balance between complexity and capability for dealing with the interferers. Amending the Automated-driving 'Constitution' SAE International's J3016 standard has been comprehensively revised with new distinctions and definitions. The Committee chairperson, Barbara Wendling, addresses the fine points behind the industry-defining - and perpetually controversial - classification for automated-driving capability.
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