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Standard

Road Vehicles - Cybersecurity Engineering

2021-08-31
CURRENT
ISO/SAE21434
A framework is defined that includes requirements for cybersecurity processes and a common language for communicating and managing cybersecurity risk. ...This document specifies engineering requirements for cybersecurity risk management regarding concept, product development, production, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of electrical and electronic (E/E) systems in road vehicles, including their components and interfaces. ...This document does not prescribe specific technology or solutions related to cybersecurity.
Technical Paper

Safety, ADAS, and Cybersecurity: Vol. 2

2024-05-03
EPRCOMPV162023
And as much as there are technical questions regarding network latency, bandwidth, cybersecurity, etc., aspects like human workload, attentiveness, and situational awareness also need to be clarified.
Technical Paper

Safety, ADAS, and Cybersecurity: Vol. 1

2024-05-03
EPRCOMPV152023
This chapter delves into the field of multi-agent collaborative perception (MCP) for autonomous driving: an area that remains unresolved. Current single-agent perception systems suffer from limitations, such as occlusion and sparse sensor observation at a far distance. To address this, three unsettled topics have been identified that demand immediate attention. First, it is crucial to establish normative communication protocols to facilitate seamless information sharing among vehicles. Second, collaboration strategies need to be defined, including identifying the need for specific collaboration projects, determining the collaboration partners, defining the content of collaboration, and establishing the integration mechanism. Finally, collecting sufficient data for MCP model training is vital. This includes capturing diverse modal data and labeling various downstream tasks as accurately as possible.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Penetration Testing for Automotive Cybersecurity

2022-12-16
2022-01-7123
Automotive electronics and enterprise IT are converging and thus open the doors for advanced hacking. With their immediate safety impact, cyberattacks on such systems will endanger passengers. Today, there are various methods of security verification and validation in the automotive industry. However, we realize that vulnerability detection is incomplete and inefficient with classic security testing. In this article, we show how an enhanced Grey-Box Penetration Test (GBPT) needs less test cases while being more effective in terms of coverage and indicating less false positives.
Research Report

Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles

2024-04-22
EPR2024009
On the other hand, the potential risks associated with CAV deployment related to technical vulnerabilities are safety and cybersecurity issues that may arise from flawed hardware and software. Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles elaborates on these topics as unsettled cybersecurity and digital trust issues in CAVs and follows with recommendations to fill in the gaps in this evolving field. ...Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles elaborates on these topics as unsettled cybersecurity and digital trust issues in CAVs and follows with recommendations to fill in the gaps in this evolving field. ...This report also highlights the importance of establishing robust cybersecurity protocols and fostering digital trust in these vehicles to ensure safe and secure deployment in our modern transportation system.
Journal Article

A Quantitative Analysis of Autonomous Vehicle Cybersecurity as a Component of Trust

2023-08-10
Abstract Connected autonomous vehicles that employ internet connectivity are technologically complex, which makes them vulnerable to cyberattacks. Many cybersecurity researchers, white hat hackers, and black hat hackers have discovered numerous exploitable vulnerabilities in connected vehicles. ...This study expanded the technology acceptance model (TAM) to include cybersecurity and level of trust as determinants of technology acceptance. This study surveyed a diverse sample of 209 licensed US drivers over 18 years old.
Technical Paper

Requirements for the Automated Generation of Attack Trees to Support Automotive Cybersecurity Assurance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0124
Although ISO/SAE 21434 recommends the development of an assurance case for cybersecurity, the precise nature of a cybersecurity case is not explicitly defined within the standard. ...In the case of cybersecurity, this problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of vehicular onboard systems, their inherent obscurity due to their heterogenous architecture, emergent behaviors, and the disparate motivations and resources of potential threat agents.
Technical Paper

Common Vulnerability Considerations as an Integral Part of the Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering Process

2022-10-05
2022-28-0304
To build secure systems of road vehicles, the cybersecurity engineering standard ISO21434[11] suggests the evaluation of vulnerabilities throughout engineering process, such as attack path analysis, system requirement stage, software architecture, design, and implementation and testing phases. ...With my analysis and practices, it is appropriate to include the common vulnerabilities that ought to be an integral part of the automotive cybersecurity engineering process. In this paper, the author would like to provide a list of vulnerabilities that might be a suggestion for threat analysis and risk assessment and propose two solutions that may be adopted directly in the V-model for security-relevant software development.
Journal Article

A Global Survey of Standardization and Industry Practices of Automotive Cybersecurity Validation and Verification Testing Processes and Tools

2023-11-16
Abstract The United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Regulation 155—Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Management System (UN R155) mandates the development of cybersecurity management systems (CSMS) as part of a vehicle’s lifecycle. ...Due to the focus of R155 and its suggested implementation guideline, ISO/SAE 21434:2021—Road Vehicle Cybersecurity Engineering, mainly centering on the alignment of cybersecurity risk management to the vehicle development lifecycle, there is a gap in knowledge of proscribed activities for validation and verification testing. ...An inherent component of the CSMS is cybersecurity risk management and assessment. Validation and verification testing is a key activity for measuring the effectiveness of risk management, and it is mandated by UN R155 for type approval.
Technical Paper

Wireless Charging for EV/HEV with Prescriptive Analytics, Machine Learning, Cybersecurity and Blockchain Technology: Ongoing and Future Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0790
Due to the rapid development in the technological aspect of the autonomous vehicle (AV), there is a compelling need for research in the field vehicle efficiency and emission reduction without affecting the performance, safety and reliability of the vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) with rechargeable battery has been proved to be a practical solution for the above problem. In order to utilize the maximum capacity of the battery, a proper power management and control mechanism need to be developed such that it does not affect the performance, reliability and safety of vehicle. Different optimization techniques along with deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach are used for the power distribution and management control. The battery-operated electric vehicle can be recharged either by plug-in a wired connection or by the inductive mean (i.e. wirelessly) with the help of the electromagnetic field energy.
Technical Paper

Challenges with the Introduction of X-By-Wire Technologies to Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks in regards to Functional Safety, Cybersecurity and Availability

2023-04-11
2023-01-0581
Classic vehicle production had limitations in bringing the driving commands to the actuators for vehicle motion (engine, steering and braking). Steering columns, hydraulic tubes or steel cables needed to be placed between the driver and actuator. Change began with the introduction of e-gas systems. Mechanical cables were replaced by thin, electric signal wires. The technical solutions and legal standardizations for addressing the steering and braking systems, were not defined at this time. Today, OEMs are starting E/E-Architecture transformations for manifold reasons and now have the chance to remove the long hydraulic tubes for braking and the solid metal columns used for steering. X-by-wire is the way forward and allows for higher Autonomous Driving (AD) levels for automated driving vehicles. This offers new opportunities to design the vehicle in-cabin space. This paper will start with the introduction of x-by-wire technologies.
Standard

Road Vehicles - Cybersecurity Engineering

2020-02-12
HISTORICAL
ISO/SAE DIS 21434
A framework is defined that includes requirements for cybersecurity processes and a common language for communicating and managing cybersecurity risk. ...This document specifies requirements for cybersecurity risk management regarding engineering for concept, development, production, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning for road vehicle electrical and electronic (E/E) systems, including their components and interfaces. ...This document does not prescribe specific technology or solutions related to cybersecurity.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Security by Design Approach for Ensuring a Secured Remote Monitoring Teleoperation (RMTO) of an Autonomous Vehicle

2023-04-11
2023-01-0579
The separation of cybersecurity considerations in RMTO is barely considered, as so far, most available research and activities are mainly focused on AV. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. An adaptable security-by-design approach for RMTO covers Security Engineering Life-cycle, Logical Security Layered Concept, and Security Architecture.
Journal Article

Towards a Blockchain Framework for Autonomous Vehicle System Integrity

2021-05-05
Ensuring cybersecurity in an ECU network is challenging as there is no centralized authority in the vehicle to provide security as a service. ...While progress has been made to address cybersecurity vulnerabilities, many of these approaches have focused on enterprise, software-centric systems and require more computational resources than typically available for onboard vehicular devices.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Automotive security solution using Hardware Security Module (HSM)

2024-10-17
2024-28-0037
., intelligent vehicles with advance safe and secure features but all these advancements come with significant threat of cybersecurity risk. Therefore, providing an automobile that is safe and secure through cyber-attack is also got equal importance. ...In this paper, we will discuss some of the challenges and key application of cybersecurity in the automotive sector. We will also discuss some possible approaches to address these challenges and enhance the security and privacy of automotive systems. ...Certain Automotive cybersecurity applications include Secure ECU communication, Digital signature generation and verification, Secure V2X, In-vehicle infotainment (IVI) security, Secure key management and storage, Secure remote vehicle access and control, and Secure over-the-air (OTA) updates.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: July 7, 2015

2015-07-07
To serve and protect As cars become more connected and automated, cybersecurity concerns are rising. Industry engineers have many tools and techniques and are now deploying encryption and standards to ensure that vehicle controls are not altered or usurped by unauthorized people.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2022

2022-07-01
An Holistic Approach to Verifying Cybersecurity in Design A powerful new generation of test and sim solutions aims to address specific security concerns associated with automotive designs.
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