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Technical Paper

THARA - a Framework to Align the Functional Safety and Security Process in Automotive Domain

2021-04-06
2021-01-0148
The underlying systems are susceptible to safety and cybersecurity attacks as the involved ECUs are interconnected. The security attacks can lead to disrupting the safe operation of the vehicle while causing injury to the passengers. ...Consequently, the functional safety requirements and cybersecurity requirements can be aligned with each other. In this paper, a case study of the application of the THARA framework is presented through the risk analysis of safety and security threats applicable to the rear-view camera (RVC) feature of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning based Real Time Vulnerability fixes Verification Mechanism for Automotive firmware/Software

2021-04-06
2021-01-0183
Software vulnerability management is one of the most critical and crucial security techniques, which analyzes the automotive software/firmware across the digital cockpit, ADAS, V2X, etc. domains for vulnerabilities, and provides security patches for the concerned Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The process of automotive SW/FW vulnerability management system between the OEMs and vendors happen through a channel of fixing a certain number of vulnerabilities by 1st tier supplier which needs to be verified in front of OEMs for the fixed number and type of patches in there deliverable SW/FW. The gap of verification between for the fixed patches between the OEMs and 1st tier supplier requires a reliable human independent intelligent technique to have a trustworthiness of verification.
Technical Paper

Secure CAN Logging

2021-04-06
2021-01-0136
However, CAN protocols are vulnerable from a cybersecurity perspective in that they have no mechanism for authentication or authorization. Attacks on vehicle CAN systems present a risk to driver privacy and possibly driver safety. ...Therefore, developing new tools and techniques to detect cybersecurity threats within CAN networks is a critical research topic. A key component of this research is compiling a large database of representative CAN data from operational vehicles on the road.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into the Cybersecurity Validation Strategy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0139
Therefore, modern cybersecurity validation is highly stressed for finding security vulnerabilities and robustness issues early and systematically at every stage of the product development process. ...The integration of a sophisticated fuzz testing program within the overall cybersecurity validation strategy allows for accommodating towards these challenging demands. In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight which of its shortcomings can be complemented by fuzz testing. ...In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight which of its shortcomings can be complemented by fuzz testing.
Technical Paper

Zero-Day Attack Defenses and Test Framework for Connected Mobility ECUs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0141
Recent developments in the commercialization of mobility services have brought unprecedented connectivity to the automotive sector. While the adoption of connected features provides significant benefits to vehicle owners, adversaries may leverage zero-day attacks to target the expanded attack surface and make unauthorized access to sensitive data. Protecting new generations of automotive controllers against malicious intrusions requires solutions that do not depend on conventional countermeasures, which often fall short when pitted against sophisticated exploitation attempts. In this paper, we describe some of the latent risks in cur-rent automotive systems along with a well-engineered multi-layer defense strategy. Further, we introduce a novel and comprehensive attack and performance test framework which considers state-of-the-art memory corruption attacks, counter-measures and evaluation methods.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
We present in this paper the context surrounding cybersecurity metrics from literature and highlight the first potential steps towards a common understanding of how much cybersecurity is enough. With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the new ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the new ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging and one of the major challenges is how to measure this system property.
Technical Paper

Simulation Modeling of Malware for IoT: Implications for Aviation

2021-03-02
2021-01-0019
This paper presents the results of a study of the malware, which will affect the Internet of Things (IoT) and its implications for aviation. First, the Delphi methodology is used in order to identify the type of malware which will be more prevalent in IoT devices. Second, several models are developed using system dynamics to study the propagation of malware, and recent cases are simulated (e.g., Sartori Botnet) to study the dynamics of propagation and potential schemes of protection. Third, a generic risk management framework is presented and discussed. Then, guidelines for the aviation industry are considered.
Technical Paper

Study of Information Security Technology Standard System for Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2021-01-22
2021-01-5022
This paper analyzed information security challenges faced by Intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV), summarized the automotive information security technology standards and regulations developed by leading automotive industrial counties and international organizations, such as UN/WP.29 and ISO/TC22, and discussed the significant and necessity of the research work on ICV information security standard system in China. Focus on driving security, the paper also proposed the basic principles, logics and a systematic frame for building automotive information security standard system, and elaborated the contents and categories of the information security standards in the system. From whole perspective, suggestions for standard system construction and related research plan were proposed.
Technical Paper

Technical Trends of the Intelligent Connected Vehicle and Development Stage Division for Freeway Traffic Control

2020-12-30
2020-01-5134
It is deemed that currently the intelligent connected vehicle (ICV) is in its early stage of development, and it will go through multiple development stages in the future to realize its final goal—autonomous driving. Based on the existing ICV researches, this paper believes that ICV can be used to improve the efficiency and safety of freeway. The current research of ICV has two main directions: one focuses on the traffic flow characteristics of vehicles with different attributes, the other is concerned with using ICV to reduce congestion. From the policies issued by countries around the world and the development plans promoted by major vehicle manufacturers, the future development trends and challenges of ICV are analyzed. ICV must overcome all the shortcomings to achieve its final goal, including insufficient hardware capabilities or excessive cost, and the degree of intelligence that needs to be improved.
Technical Paper

Development and Research of Environment Perception Technology in Intelligent Networked Transportation System

2020-12-30
2020-01-5152
As an important part of intelligent driving vehicles and intelligent networked transportation systems, environmental perception technology can provide important decision-making basis for the overall planning of intelligent driving vehicles and transportation systems. This paper reviews the current research on environment perception technology in the current intelligent networked transportation system, and analyzes four key research directions and related progress of environmental sensing technologies, including single sensor device, high-precision map, multi-sensor information fusion and vehicle-road collaboration. On the basis of analyzing and summarizing existing related research, this article elaborates the development trend and key directions of future environmental perception technology, including the integration of deep learning, vehicle-road integration, information security and multi-dimensional perception technology related development directions.
Technical Paper

Service Analysis of Autonomous Driving

2020-12-30
2020-01-5194
Autonomous driving represents the ultimate goal of future automobile development. As a collaborative application that integrates vehicles, road infrastructure, network and cloud, autonomous driving business requires a high-degree dynamic cooperation among multiple resources such as data, computing and communications that are distributed throughout the system. In order to meet the anticipated high demand for resources and performance requirements of autonomous driving, and to ensure the safety and comfort of the vehicle users and pedestrians, a top concern of autonomous driving is to understand the system requirements for resources and conduct an in-depth analysis of the autonomous driving business. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the typical business for autonomous driving and establishes an analysis model for five common capabilities, i.e. collection, transmission, intelligent computing, human-machine interaction (HMI), and security.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Adopting Blockchain Technology in Aerospace

2020-10-30
EPR2020021
In the aerospace industry, competition is high and the need to ensure safety and security while managing costs is paramount. Furthermore, stakeholders—who gain the most by working together—do not necessarily trust each other. Now, mix that with changing enterprise technologies, management of historical records, and customized legacy systems. This issue touches all aspects of the aerospace industry, from frequent flyer miles to aircraft maintenance and drives tremendous inefficiency and cost. Technology that augments, rather than replaces, is needed to transform these complex systems into efficient, digital processes. Blockchain technology offers collaborative opportunities for solving some of the data problems that have long challenged the industry. This SAE EDGE™ Research Report by Rhonda D. Walthall examines how blockchain technology could impact the aerospace industry and addresses some of the unsettled concerns surrounding its implementation.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics in Automated Vehicle Data Sharing for Verification and Validation Purposes

2020-06-03
EPR2020007
Unsettled Topics in Automated Vehicle Data Sharing for Verification and Validation Purposes discusses the unsettled issue of sharing the terabytes of driving data generated by Automated Vehicles (AVs) on a daily basis. Perception engineers use these large datasets to analyze and model the automated driving systems (ADS) that will eventually be integrated into future “self-driving” vehicles. However, the current industry practices of collecting data by driving on public roads to understand real-world scenarios is not practical and will be unlikely to lead to safe deployment of this technology anytime soon. Estimates show that it could take 400 years for a fleet of 100 AVs to drive enough miles to prove that they are as safe as human drivers.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics in the Application of Satellite Navigation to Air Traffic Management

2020-05-27
EPR2020010
Contemporary air traffic management (ATM) challenges are both (1) acute and (2) growing at rates far outpacing established ways for absorbing technological innovation. Lack of timely response will guarantee failure to meet demands. Immediately that creates a necessity to identify means of coping and judging new technologies based on possible speed of adoption. Paralleling the challenges are developments in capability, both recent and decades old. Some steps (e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS) backup) are well known and, in fact, should have progressed further long ago. Others (e.g., sharing raw measurements instead of position fixes) are equally well known and, if followed by further flight tests initiated (and successful) years ago, would have produced a wealth of in-flight experience by now if development had continued. Other possibilities (e.g., automated pilot override) are much less common and are considered largely experimental.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Integrating Cybersecurity into Existing Development Processes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0144
Strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and cybersecurity topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. ...Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. A cybersecurity development approach is frequently perceived as introducing impediments, that bear the risk of cybersecurity measures receiving a lower priority to reduce inconvenience. ...For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding cybersecurity features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity without perceivable benefits.
Technical Paper

State of the Art Survey on Comparison of Physical Fingerprinting-Based Intrusion Detection Techniques for In-Vehicle Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0721
Controller area network (CAN) is used as a legacy protocol for in-vehicle communication. However, it lacks basic security features such as message authentication, integrity, confidentiality, etc., because the sender information in the message is missing. Hence, it is prone to different attacks like spoofing attacks, denial of service attacks, man in the middle and masquerade attacks. Researchers have proposed various techniques to detect and prevent these attacks, which can be split into two classes: (a) MAC-based techniques and (b) intrusion detection-based techniques. Further, intrusion detection systems can be divided into four categories: (i) message parameter- based, (ii) entropy-based, (iii) machine Learning-based and (iv) fingerprinting-based. This paper details state-of- the-art survey of fingerprinting-based intrusion detection techniques. In addition, the advantages and limitations of different fingerprinting-based intrusion detection techniques methods will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Selftrust - A Practical Approach for Trust Establishment

2020-04-14
2020-01-0720
In recent years, with increase in external connectivity (V2X, telematics, mobile projection, BYOD) the automobile is becoming a target of cyberattacks and intrusions. Any such intrusion reduces customer trust in connected cars and negatively impacts brand image (like the recent Jeep Cherokee hack). To protect against intrusion, several mechanisms are available. These range from a simple secure CAN to a specialized symbiote defense software. A few systems (e.g. V2X) implement detection of an intrusion (defined as a misbehaving entity). However, most of the mechanisms require a system-wide change which adds to the cost and negatively impacts the performance. In this paper, we are proposing a practical and scalable approach to intrusion detection. Some benefits of our approach include use of existing security mechanisms such as TrustZone® and watermarking with little or no impact on cost and performance. In addition, our approach is scalable and does not require any system-wide changes.
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1291
Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.
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