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Research Report

Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure

2021-12-15
EPR2021030
Information and communication technology is fundamentally changing the way we live and operate in cities, such as instant access to events, transportation, bookings, payments, and other services. At the same time, three “megatrends” in the automotive industry—self-driving, electrification, and advanced manufacturing technology—are enabling the design of innovative, application-specific vehicles that capitalize on city connectivity. Applications could countless; however, they also need to be safe and securely integrated into a city’s physical and digital infrastructure, and into the overall urban ecosystem. Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure examines the current state of the industry, the developments in automated driving and robotics, and how these new urban, self-driving city applications are different. It also analyzes higher level challenges for urban applications.
Technical Paper

Designing a Next Generation Trailer Braking System

2021-10-11
2021-01-1268
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Oriented Distributed Test Strategy for FOTA/SOTA Enabled Edge Device

2021-09-22
2021-26-0476
In order to enhance customer experience [5] and to reduce time to market, the manufacturers are constantly in need of being able to update software/firmware of the Electronic Control units (ECU) when the vehicle is in field operations. The updates could be a bug fix or a new feature release. Until the recent years, the updation of software/firmware used to be done using a physical hardwired connection to the Vehicle in a workshop. However, with the element of connectivity being added to the vehicle, the updation of software can be done remotely and wirelessly over the air using a feature called Flash over the air (FOTA) [2] and Software over the air (SOTA) [2]. In order to safeguard the telematics [3] ECU from tampering or hacking, the manufacturers are doing away with the ports on the underlying hardware through which manual flashing used to be done. This means that, the only option available to flash or update the ECU is using FOTA/SOTA.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation

2021-09-13
EPR2021020
Their associated information technology and cyber physical systems—along with an exponentially resultant number of interconnections—present a massive cybersecurity challenge. Unlike the physical security challenge, which was treated in earnest throughout the last decades, cyber-attacks on airports keep coming, but most airport lack essential means to confront such cyber-attacks. ...These missing means are not technical tools, but rather holistic regulatory directives, technical and process standards, guides, and best practices for airports cybersecurity—even airport cybersecurity concepts and basic definitions are missing in certain cases. Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation offers a deeper analysis of these issues and their causes, focusing on the unique characteristics of airports in general, specific cybersecurity challenges, missing definitions, and conceptual infrastructure for the standardization and regulation of airports cybersecurity. ...Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation offers a deeper analysis of these issues and their causes, focusing on the unique characteristics of airports in general, specific cybersecurity challenges, missing definitions, and conceptual infrastructure for the standardization and regulation of airports cybersecurity.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Technical Paper

It Takes a Village: A Case Study of Business Development and Innovation in a UAS/AUS Ecosystem to Address Critical Industry Challenges

2021-06-16
2021-01-1002
Entrepreneurial innovation that spurs economic development requires a collaborative cluster of cooperative effort, across a diverse ecosystem of partners. Literature provides resounding evidence to support the notion that an innovative, entrepreneurial ecosystem is critical to both successful economic development and industry sector growth. The UAS/AUS industry sector is a fast-growing sector across the United States, with regional leadership demonstrated in North Dakota, California, North Carolina, New York, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. This case study is focused on investigating how the North Dakota autonomous systems ecosystem continues to evolves and develop mechanisms and partnerships to address industry pain points, facilitate cutting edge research, ensure high-quality UAS/AUS testing, and support an adaptive business development pipeline across the entrepreneurial life cycle.
Technical Paper

Safe Operations at Roadway Junctions - Design Principles from Automated Guideway Transit

2021-06-16
2021-01-1004
This paper describes a system-level view of a fully automated transit system comprising a fleet of automated vehicles (AVs) in driverless operation, each with an SAE level 4 Automated Driving System, along with its related safety infrastructure and other system equipment. This AV system-level control is compared to the automatic train control system used in automated guideway transit technology, particularly that of communications-based train control (CBTC). Drawing from the safety principles, analysis methods, and risk assessments of CBTC systems, comparable functional subsystem definitions are proposed for AV fleets in driverless operation. With the prospect of multiple AV fleets operating within a single automated mobility district, the criticality of protecting roadway junctions requires an approach like that of automated fixed-guideway transit systems, in which a guideway switch zone “interlocking” at each junction location deconflicts railway traffic, affirming safe passage.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Vehicular Visual Sensor Blinding Detection by Integrating Variational Autoencoders with SVM

2021-04-06
2021-01-0144
The advancements of autonomous vehicles or advanced driver assistance systems in terms of safety, driving experience, and comfort against manual driving results in extensive adoption of them across the modern automotive sector. The autonomous vehicles are equipped with numerous sensing and actuating components both inside as well as outside the vehicles to perceive the environment, perform path planning, and intelligently control the autonomous vehicles. The perception mechanism includes fused information of multiple sensors such as camera, RADAR, and LiDAR to effectively understand all the dynamic driving environments. Some of the intentional and unintentional mechanisms such as cyber-attacks and natural variations of the environment, etc., across the sensor's external interface with the environment cause the degradation of the perception mechanism.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) for Efficient ISO 26262 Compliance

2021-04-06
2021-01-0067
There has been a significant increase - both in the content of electronics and software in vehicles as well as in recalls attributed to these components and systems. The advanced features, including the onset of autonomous vehicles accompanied by millions of lines of code in software have exponentially increased the complexity of vehicle systems and decreased effectiveness of many of the safety analysis techniques being used to identify hazards and safety requirements - for example, FMEA, FTA, ETA, etc.- which were invented decades before the existence of complexities of such magnitude. This paper examines a new hazard identification technique formalized by Nancy G Leveson of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA in her book “Engineering a Safer World” and further elaborated in the STPA Handbook co-authored with John P Thomas in March 2018.
Technical Paper

Adopting Aviation Safety Knowledge into the Discussions of Safe Implementation of Connected and Autonomous Road Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0074
The development of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) is progressing fast. Yet, safety and standardization-related discussions are limited due to the recent nature of the sector. Despite the effort that is initiated to kick-start the study, awareness among practitioners is still low. Hence, further effort is required to stimulate this discussion. Among the available works on CAV safety, some of them take inspiration from the aviation sector that has strict safety regulations. The underlying reason is the experience that has been gained over the decades. However, the literature still lacks a thorough association between automation in aviation and the CAV from the safety perspective. As such, this paper motivates the adoption of safe-automation knowledge from aviation to facilitate safer CAV systems.
Journal Article

Implementation Methodologies for Simulation as a Service (SaaS) to Develop ADAS Applications

2021-04-06
2021-01-0116
Over the years, the complexity of autonomous vehicle development (and concurrently the verification and validation) has grown tremendously in terms of component-, subsystem- and system-level interactions between autonomy and the human users. Simulation-based testing holds significant promise in helping to identify both problematic interactions between component-, subsystem-, and system-levels as well as overcoming delays typically introduced by the default full-scale on-road testing. Software in Loop (SiL) simulation is utilized as an intermediate step towards software deployment for autonomous vehicles (AV) to make them reliable. SiL efforts can help reduce the resources required for successful deployment by helping to validate the software for millions of road miles. A key enabler for accelerating SiL processes is the ability to use Simulation as a Service (SaaS) rather than just isolated instances of software.
Journal Article

Zero-Day Attack Defenses and Test Framework for Connected Mobility ECUs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0141
Recent developments in the commercialization of mobility services have brought unprecedented connectivity to the automotive sector. While the adoption of connected features provides significant benefits to vehicle owners, adversaries may leverage zero-day attacks to target the expanded attack surface and make unauthorized access to sensitive data. Protecting new generations of automotive controllers against malicious intrusions requires solutions that do not depend on conventional countermeasures, which often fall short when pitted against sophisticated exploitation attempts. In this paper, we describe some of the latent risks in current automotive systems along with a well-engineered multi-layer defense strategy. Further, we introduce a novel and comprehensive attack and performance test framework which considers state-of-the-art memory corruption attacks, countermeasures and evaluation methods.
Technical Paper

A Domain-Centralized Automotive Powertrain E/E Architecture

2021-04-06
2021-01-0786
This paper proposes a domain-centralized powertrain E/E (electrical and/or electronic) architecture for all-electric vehicles that features: a powerful master controller (domain controller) that implements most of the functionality of the domain; a set of smart actuators for electric motor(s), HV (High Voltage) battery pack, and thermal management; and a gateway that routes all hardware signals, including digital and analog I/O, and field bus signals between the domain controller and the rest of the vehicle that is outside of the domain. Major functional safety aspects of the architecture are presented and a safety architecture is proposed. The work represents an early E/E architecture proposal. In particular, detailed partitioning of software components over the domain’s Electronic Control Units (ECUs) has not been determined yet; instead, potential partitioning schemes are discussed.
Technical Paper

Technical Trends of the Intelligent Connected Vehicle and Development Stage Division for Freeway Traffic Control

2020-12-30
2020-01-5134
It is deemed that currently the intelligent connected vehicle (ICV) is in its early stage of development, and it will go through multiple development stages in the future to realize its final goal—autonomous driving. Based on the existing ICV researches, this paper believes that ICV can be used to improve the efficiency and safety of freeway. The current research of ICV has two main directions: one focuses on the traffic flow characteristics of vehicles with different attributes, the other is concerned with using ICV to reduce congestion. From the policies issued by countries around the world and the development plans promoted by major vehicle manufacturers, the future development trends and challenges of ICV are analyzed. ICV must overcome all the shortcomings to achieve its final goal, including insufficient hardware capabilities or excessive cost, and the degree of intelligence that needs to be improved.
Technical Paper

Service Analysis of Autonomous Driving

2020-12-30
2020-01-5194
Autonomous driving represents the ultimate goal of future automobile development. As a collaborative application that integrates vehicles, road infrastructure, network and cloud, autonomous driving business requires a high-degree dynamic cooperation among multiple resources such as data, computing and communications that are distributed throughout the system. In order to meet the anticipated high demand for resources and performance requirements of autonomous driving, and to ensure the safety and comfort of the vehicle users and pedestrians, a top concern of autonomous driving is to understand the system requirements for resources and conduct an in-depth analysis of the autonomous driving business. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the typical business for autonomous driving and establishes an analysis model for five common capabilities, i.e. collection, transmission, intelligent computing, human-machine interaction (HMI), and security.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Human and Autonomous Vehicle Interaction

2020-12-18
EPR2020025
This report examines the current interaction points between humans and autonomous systems, with a particular focus on advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), the requirements for human-machine interfaces as imposed by human perception, and finally, the progress being made to close the gap. Autonomous technology has the potential to benefit personal transportation, last-mile delivery, logistics, and many other mobility applications enormously. In many of these applications, the mobility infrastructure is a shared resource in which all the players must cooperate. In fact, the driving task has been described as a “tango” where we—as humans—cooperate naturally to enable a robust transportation system. Can autonomous systems participate in this tango? Does that even make sense? And if so, how do we make it happen? Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Autonomous Public Transportation Systems

2020-10-30
EPR2020020
With billions of dollars of investment and events like DARPA’s Grand Challenges automated driving technology has been making its way toward commercialization. While the enabling technology for SAE Level 4 and 5 automated vehicles (AV) has not yet matured, specific restricted-use models such as “robo-taxis” and automated truck convoying show great promise. Now, cities are across the world are looking to AVs to solve their public transportation issues. With low speeds and fixed route, public transportation is an ideal application for AVs. From a business angle, AVs could leverage existing public transport models and infrastructure while providing superior quality of service for disadvantaged communities. Yet, dense urban environments—which would benefit from automated transportation the most—present unique challenges and public sector requirements. This SAE EDGE™ Research Report by Dr.
Journal Article

A Novel Assessment and Administration Method of Autonomous Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0708
As a promising strategic industry group that is rapidly evolving around the world, autonomous vehicle is entering a critical phase of commercialization from demonstration to end markets. The global automotive industry and governments are facing new common topics and challenges brought by autonomous vehicle, such as how to test, assess, and administrate the autonomous vehicle to ensure their safe running in real traffic situations and proper interactions with other road users. Starting from the facts that the way to autonomous driving is the process of a robot or a machine taking over driving tasks from a human. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of autonomous vehicle which are different from traditional one, then demonstrates the limitations of the existing certification mechanism and related testing methods when applied to autonomous vehicle.
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