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Technical Paper

Medical Cargo Delivery using Blockchain Enabled Unmanned Aircraft Systems

2022-05-26
2022-26-0006
Significant growth of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has unlocked many services and applications opportunities in the healthcare sector. Aerial transportation of medical cargo delivery can be an effective and alternative way to ground-based transport systems in times of emergency. To improve the security and the trust of such aerial transportation systems, Blockchain can be used as a potential technology to manage, operate and monitor the entire process. In this paper, we present a blockchain network solution based on Ethereum for the transportation of medical cargo such as blood, medicines, vaccines, etc. The smart contract solution developed in solidity language was tested using the Truffle program. Ganache blockchain test network was employed to host the blockchain network and test the operation of the proposed blockchain model. The suitability of the model is validated in real-time using a UAV and all the flight data are captured and uploaded into the blockchain.
Technical Paper

Attacking Ground Vehicles with Ransomware: Watch the Horizon

2022-03-29
2022-01-0358
Ransomware is not a new method of malware infection. This historically had been experienced in the enterprise in nearly every industry. This has been especially problematic in the medical and manufacturing fields. As the attackers saturate the specifically targeted industries, the attackers will expand their target industries. One of these which has not been significantly explored by the ransomware groups are the embedded systems and automobile environment. This set of targets is massive and provides for a vast attack potential. While this has not experienced this attack methodology at length, the research and efforts are creeping towards this as a natural extension of the business. The research focusses on the history of ransomware, uses in the enterprise, possible attack vectors with ground vehicles, and defenses to be explored and implemented to secure automobiles, fleets, and the industries.
Technical Paper

Routing and Security Mechanisms Design for Automotive TSN/CAN FD Security Gateway

2022-03-29
2022-01-0112
With the explosion of in-vehicle data, Time Sensitive Network (TSN) is increasingly becoming the backbone of the in-vehicle network to ensure deterministic real-time communication and Quality of Service (QoS). However, legacy buses such as CAN FD and LIN will not disappear for a long time in the future. Many protocols are deployed in the gateway and it is an important component in the security and functional safety of the communication process. In this paper, the recommended Electrical/Electronic Architecture is first given and the use cases for the TSN/CAN FD gateway are illustrated. Then, a TSN/CAN FD routing mechanism is designed and security mechanisms are deployed. The routing mechanism includes the protocol conversion module, queue cache module, and forwarding scheduling module. The protocol conversion module unpacks or packs the TSN or CAN FD frames according to the routing table.
Technical Paper

Functional Verification and Validation of Secure Controller Area Network (CAN) Communication

2022-03-29
2022-01-0110
In agriculture industry, increasing use of Vehicle Internet of Things (IoT), telematics and emerging technologies are resulting in smarter machines with connected solutions. Inter and Intra Communication with vehicle to vehicle and inside vehicle - Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to ECU or ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to sensor, requirement for flow of data increased in-turn resulting in increased need for secure communication. In this paper, we focus on functional verification and validation of secure Controller Area Network (CAN) for intra vehicular communication to establish confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and freshness of data, supporting safety, advanced automation, protection of sensitive data and IP (Intellectual Property) protection. Network security algorithms and software security processes are the layers supporting to achieve our cause.
Technical Paper

UDS Security Access for Constrained ECUs

2022-03-29
2022-01-0132
Legacy electronic control units are, nowadays, required to implement cybersecurity measures, but they often do not have all the elements that are necessary to realize industry-standard cybersecurity controls. ...Legacy electronic control units are, nowadays, required to implement cybersecurity measures, but they often do not have all the elements that are necessary to realize industry-standard cybersecurity controls. For example, they may not have hardware cryptographic accelerators, segregated areas of memory for storing keys, or one-time programmable memory areas. ...While the UDS service $27 (Security Access) has a reputation for poor cybersecurity, there is nothing inherent in the way it operates which prevents a secure access-control from being implemented.
Technical Paper

Strategy to Adopt ISO/SAE 21434 Cyber Security Assurance Level in the Organization

2022-03-29
2022-01-0121
The recent standard, ISO/SAE 21434, is introduced to address the cybersecurity requirements for the development of electrical and electronic components in the road vehicles. ...This standard has introduced a new classification scheme, cybersecurity assurance level (CAL), that helps in validating the process rigor needed for mitigating different threat scenarios. ...CAL values can be determined at the earlier stages of the SDLC (cybersecurity concept phase) through the knowledge of attack vectors and attack severity specific to a system.
Technical Paper

Future of Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors (AEHTA)

2022-03-29
2022-01-0122
In conjunction with an increasing number of related laws and regulations (such as UNECE R155 and ISO 21434), these drive security requirements in different domains and areas. 2 In this paper we examine the upcoming trends in EE architectures and investigate the underlying cyber-security threats and corresponding security requirements that lead to potential requirements for “Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors” (AEHTA).
Technical Paper

Mechanism for Runtime Kernel Integrity Check without Additional IP and without TEE for Low/Mid Automotive Segments

2022-03-29
2022-01-0125
Vehicles have more connectivity options now-a-days and these increasing connection options are giving more chances for an intruder to exploit the system. So, the vehicle manufacturers need to make the ECU in the vehicle more secure. To make the system secure, the embedded system must secure all the assets in the system. Examples of assets are Software, Kernel or Operating system, cryptographic Keys, Passwords, user data, etc. In this, securing the Kernel is extremely important as an intruder can even exploit the operating system characteristics just by changing the kernel code without introducing a trojan in the system. Also, the Kernel is the one entity that manages all permissions, so, if the kernel is hacked, these permissions also get compromised. The proposed approach is to make the kernel secure by doing the integrity check periodically of the kernel code loaded into the main memory of the system.
Technical Paper

Mechanism to Identify Legitimate Vehicle User in Remote Keyless Entry System

2022-03-29
2022-01-0124
The advancements of the automotive system in all the aspects from safety to user experience brings never ending list of electronics components into the system. One of the pure critical components in providing the vehicle safety is the digital key or wireless vehicle entry systems. This component is responsible for protecting all the other components of the vehicle and the vehicle itself from thieves and illegal usage of the vehicle. The compromisations of this critical component is equivalent to a compromisations of the entire vehicle along with some legal implications on the vehicle owner. There are numerous additional systems in automotive electronics which enhances the security of the critical, digital key/wireless vehicle entry system in protecting the vehicles from attackers. However, there is no component available in the market which does user/owner authentication considering its impact and criticality on both the vehicle and its owner.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Automated Vehicle Operational Safety Assessment (OSA) Metrics to Measurement and Parameter Uncertainty

2022-03-29
2022-01-0815
As the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) on public roadways expands, there is growing interest in establishing metrics that can be used to evaluate vehicle operational safety. The set of Operational Safety Assessment (OSA) metrics, that include several safety envelope-type metrics, previously proposed by the Institute of Automated Mobility (IAM) are a step towards this goal. The safety envelope OSA metrics can be computed using kinematics derived from video data captured by infrastructure-based cameras and thus do not require on-board sensor data or vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity, though either of the latter data sources could enhance kinematic data accuracy. However, the calculation of some metrics includes certain vehicle-specific parameters that must be assumed or estimated if they are not known a priori or communicated directly by the vehicle.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics in the General Aviation Autonomy Landscape

2022-02-24
EPR2022004
The extent of automation and autonomy used in general aviation (GA) has been accelerating dramatically. This has huge potential benefits for safety given that 75% of accidents in personal and on-demand GA are due to pilot error. However, an approach to certifying autonomous systems that relies on reversionary modes limits their potential to improve safety. Placing a human pilot in a situation where they are suddenly tasked with flying an airplane in a failed situation, often without sufficient situational awareness, is overly demanding. This, coupled with advancing technology that may not align with a deterministic certification paradigm, creates an opportunity for new approaches to certifying autonomous and highly automated aircraft systems.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Drive-by-Wire and Automated Driving System Availability

2022-01-28
EPR2022001
While many observers think that autonomy is right around the corner, there many unsettled issues. One such issue is availability, or how the vehicle behaves in the event of a failure of one of its systems such as those with the latest “by-wire” technologies. Handling of failures at a technical actuation level could involve many aspects, including time of operation after first fault, function/performance after first fault, and exposure after first fault. All of these and other issues are affected by software and electronic and mechanical hardware. Drive-by-wire and Automated Driving System Availability discusses the necessary systems approach required to address these issues. Establishing an industry path forward for these topics will simplify system development and provide a framework for consistent regulation and liability, which is an enabler for the launch of autonomous vehicles. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Journal Article

Threat/Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment: A Framework to Align the Functional Safety and Security Process in Automotive Domain

2021-12-17
2021-01-0148
The underlying systems are susceptible to safety and cybersecurity attacks as the involved ECUs are interconnected. The security attacks can lead to disrupting the safe operation of the vehicle while causing injury to the passengers. ...Consequently, the functional safety requirements and cybersecurity requirements can be aligned with each other. In this article, a case study of the application of the THARA framework is presented through the risk analysis of safety and security threats applicable to the rearview camera (RVC) feature of the vehicle.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation

2021-12-15
EPR2021028
On-road vehicles equipped with driving automation features—where a human might not be needed for operation on-board—are entering the mainstream public space. However, questions like “How safe is safe enough?” and “What to do if the system fails?” persist. This is where remote operation comes in, which is an additional layer to the automated driving system where a human remotely assists the so-called “driverless” vehicle in certain situations. Such remote-operation solutions introduce additional challenges and potential risks as the entire vehicle-network-human now needs to work together safely, effectively, and practically. Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation highlights technical questions (e.g., network latency, bandwidth, cyber security) and human aspects (e.g., workload, attentiveness, situational awareness) of remote operation and introduces evolving solutions.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure

2021-12-15
EPR2022003
Information and communication technology is fundamentally changing the way we live and operate in cities, such as instant access to events, transportation, bookings, payments, and other services. At the same time, three “megatrends” in the automotive industry—self-driving, electrification, and advanced manufacturing technology—are enabling the design of innovative, application-specific vehicles that capitalize on city connectivity. Applications could countless; however, they also need to be safe and securely integrated into a city’s physical and digital infrastructure, and into the overall urban ecosystem. Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure examines the current state of the industry, the developments in automated driving and robotics, and how these new urban, self-driving city applications are different. It also analyzes higher level challenges for urban applications.
Research Report

Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing

2021-11-15
EPR2021026
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” now provides the ability to have an almost fully digital chain from part design through manufacture and service. This “digital thread” can bring great benefits in improving designs, processes, materials, operations, and the ability to predict failure in a way that maximizes safety and minimizes cost and downtime. Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing discusses what the interplay between AM and a digital thread in the mobility industry would look like, the potential benefits and costs, the hurdles that need to be overcome for the combination to be useful, and how an organization can answer these questions to scope and benefit from the combination. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Technical Paper

Designing a Next Generation Trailer Braking System

2021-10-11
2021-01-1268
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Oriented Distributed Test Strategy for FOTA/SOTA Enabled Edge Device

2021-09-22
2021-26-0475
In order to enhance customer experience [5] and to reduce time to market, the manufacturers are constantly in need of being able to update software/firmware of the Electronic Control units (ECU) when the vehicle is in field operations. The updates could be a bug fix or a new feature release. Until the recent years, the updation of software/firmware used to be done using a physical hardwired connection to the Vehicle in a workshop. However, with the element of connectivity being added to the vehicle, the updation of software can be done remotely and wirelessly over the air using a feature called Flash over the air (FOTA) [2] and Software over the air (SOTA) [2]. In order to safeguard the telematics [3] ECU from tampering or hacking, the manufacturers are doing away with the ports on the underlying hardware through which manual flashing used to be done. This means that, the only option available to flash or update the ECU is using FOTA/SOTA.
Technical Paper

Improved Run Time Error Analysis Using Formal Methods for Automotive Software - Improvement of Quality, Cost Effectiveness and Efforts to Proactive Defects Check

2021-09-22
2021-26-0456
Quality is what determines success or failure. If products are not error-free, reliable and robust, customers will be put off. Criticism is inevitable. Bosch is focusing on this theme and taking appropriate action to improve the quality of automotive software. Runtime errors most often refer to issues that appear during the execution of a program like buffer overflow issues and pointer access out of bounds. They are important to detect as they may cause critical safety, security or business operation concerns. They can potentially cause the critical systems of high-integrity applications to fail, leading to disastrous results and they have been blamed as the root cause of system failure in high-profile examples in automotive software. This has resulted in identifying run-time error detection as critical field of interest where safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements by all contemporary safety standards where no run-time errors must occur.
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