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Technical Paper

A Zero Trust Architecture for Automotive Networks

Since the early 1990’s, commercial vehicles have suffered from repeated vulnerability exploitations that resulted in a need for improved automotive cybersecurity. This paper describes the strategies and challenges involved in securing vehicle networks through the implementation of an automotive Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA). ...This ZTA solution leverages the best cybersecurity practices from the IT industry and preexisting vehicle architecture components. For example, the vehicle gateway electronic control unit (ECU) is utilized to enforce cyber policy, monitor the network, distribute keys, and implement network segmentation. ...This research successfully demonstrates that using Zero Trust principles in an on-vehicle network greatly improves the cybersecurity posture with manageable impact to system performance, cost, and deployment.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E Architecture and Key Technologies Enabling Software-Defined Vehicle

This paper gives a definition of the SDV concept, provides views from different aspects, discusses the latest progress in vehicle E/E architecture, especially the centralized and zone-based architecture, and various technologies including High-Performance Computing (HPC) platform, vehicle Operating System (OS), Over-The-Air (OTA) Update, advanced communication, connectivity, cybersecurity, and cloud service, etc. that enable SDV.
Technical Paper

The Interference of Functional Safety and Cyber Security in the Context of Fail-Operational Systems

The development of highly automated driving functions (AD) recently drives the demand for so called Fail-Operational systems for native driving functions like steering and braking of vehicles. Fail-Operational systems shall guarantee the availability of driving functions even in presence of failures. This can also mean a degradation of system performance or limiting a system’s remaining operating period. In either case, the goal is independency from a human driver as a permanently situation-aware safety fallback solution to provide a certain level of autonomy. In parallel, the connectivity of modern vehicles is rapidly increasing and especially in vehicles with highly automated functions, there is high demand for connected functions, Infotainment (web conference, Internet, Shopping) and Entertainment (Streaming, Gaming) to entertain the passengers, who are no longer occupied with driving tasks.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Requirements, Specifications, and Framework of a Digital Thread in Aircraft Data Life Cycle Management

In the aerospace community, the digital thread is a powerful concept to facilitate an asset's tracking, analysis, and performance improvement across its entire lifecycle. The digital thread constitutes numerous flows of information as a digital representation of events related to product information throughout the product lifecycle. The digital thread provides the data and structure necessary to obtain data from real-world events and align that data with the virtual design objects and their real-time physical transformations over the object lifecycle stages and as the operational state changes. The number of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has been growing over the past few years and will continue to grow at a faster pace in the near future. UAS faces many challenges in certification, airspace management, operations, supply chain, and maintenance.
Technical Paper

The Operation Phase as the Currently Underestimated Phase of the (Safety and Legal) Product Lifecycle of Autonomous Vehicles for SAE L3/L4 – Lessons Learned from Existing European Operations and Development of a Deployment and Surveillance Blueprint

Advanced Autonomous Vehicles (AV) for SAE Level 3 and Level 4 functions will lead to a new understanding of the operation phase in the overall product lifecycle. Regulations such as the EU Implementing Act and the German L4 Act (AFGBV) request a continuous field surveillance, the handling of critical E/E faults and software updates during operation. This is required to enhance the Operational Design Domain (ODD) during operation, offering Functions on Demand (FoD), by increasing software features within these autonomous vehicle systems over the entire digital product lifecycle, and to avoid and reduce downtime by a malfunction of the Autonomous Driving (AD) software stack.
Technical Paper

Access Control Requirements for Autonomous Robotic Fleets

Access control enforces security policies for controlling critical resources. For V2X (Vehicle to Everything) autonomous military vehicle fleets, network middleware systems such as ROS (Robotic Operating System) expose system resources through networked publisher/subscriber and client/server paradigms. Without proper access control, these systems are vulnerable to attacks from compromised network nodes, which may perform data poisoning attacks, flood packets on a network, or attempt to gain lateral control of other resources. Access control for robotic middleware systems has been investigated in both ROS1 and ROS2. Still, these implementations do not have mechanisms for evaluating a policy's consistency and completeness or writing expressive policies for distributed fleets. We explore an RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) mechanism layered onto ROS environments that uses local permission caches with precomputed truth tables for fast policy evaluation.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Automotive Requirements Analysis

Automotive system functionalities spread over a wide range of sub-domains ranging from non-driving related components to complex autonomous driving related components. The requirements to design and develop these components span across software, hardware, firmware, etc. elements. The successful development of these components to achieve the needs from the stockholders requires accurate understanding and traceability of the requirements of these component systems. The high-level customer requirements transformation into low level granularity requires an efficient requirement engineer. The manual understanding of the customer requirements from the requirement documents are influenced by the context and the knowledge gap of the requirement engineer in understanding and transforming the requirements.
Technical Paper

Challenges with the Introduction of X-By-Wire Technologies to Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks in regards to Functional Safety, Cybersecurity and Availability

Classic vehicle production had limitations in bringing the driving commands to the actuators for vehicle motion (engine, steering and braking). Steering columns, hydraulic tubes or steel cables needed to be placed between the driver and actuator. Change began with the introduction of e-gas systems. Mechanical cables were replaced by thin, electric signal wires. The technical solutions and legal standardizations for addressing the steering and braking systems, were not defined at this time. Today, OEMs are starting E/E-Architecture transformations for manifold reasons and now have the chance to remove the long hydraulic tubes for braking and the solid metal columns used for steering. X-by-wire is the way forward and allows for higher Autonomous Driving (AD) levels for automated driving vehicles. This offers new opportunities to design the vehicle in-cabin space. This paper will start with the introduction of x-by-wire technologies.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Security by Design Approach for Ensuring a Secured Remote Monitoring Teleoperation (RMTO) of an Autonomous Vehicle

The separation of cybersecurity considerations in RMTO is barely considered, as so far, most available research and activities are mainly focused on AV. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. ...The main focus of this paper is addressing RMTO cybersecurity utilising an adaptable security-by-design approach, although security-by-design is still in the infant state within automotive cybersecurity. An adaptable security-by-design approach for RMTO covers Security Engineering Life-cycle, Logical Security Layered Concept, and Security Architecture.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity in EV’s: Approach for Systematic Secured SW Development through ISO/SAE 21434 & ASPICE

Cybersecurity (CS) is crucial and significantly important in every product that is connected to the network/internet. ...Hence making it very important to guarantee that every single connected device shall have cybersecurity measures implemented to ensure the safety of the entire system. Looking into the forecasted worldwide growth in the electric vehicles (EV’s) segment, CS researchers have recently identified several vulnerabilities that exist in EV’s, electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) devices, communications to EVs, and upstream services, such as EVSE vendor cloud services, third party systems, and grid operators. ...Additional processes have been defined in the process reference and assessment model for the CS engineering in order to incorporate the cybersecurity related processes in the ASPICE scope. This paper aims at providing a model & brief overview to establish a correlation between the ASPICE, ISO/SAE 21434 and the ISO 26262 functional safety (FS) standards for development of a secured cybersecurity software with all the considerations that an organization can undertake.
Journal Article

Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities for Off-Board Commercial Vehicle Diagnostics

The lack of inherent security controls makes traditional Controller Area Network (CAN) buses vulnerable to Machine-In-The-Middle (MitM) cybersecurity attacks. Conventional vehicular MitM attacks involve tampering with the hardware to directly manipulate CAN bus traffic.
Technical Paper

Consequence-Driven Cybersecurity for High-Power Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

Cybersecurity of high-power charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs) is critical to the safety, reliability, and consumer confidence in this publicly accessible technology. ...Cybersecurity of high-power charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs) is critical to the safety, reliability, and consumer confidence in this publicly accessible technology. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in high-power EV charging infrastructure may also present risks to broader transportation and energy-infrastructure systems. ...This paper details a methodology used to analyze and prioritize high-consequence events that could result from cybersecurity sabotage to high-power charging infrastructure. The highest prioritized events are evaluated under laboratory conditions for the severity of impact and the complexity of cybersecurity manipulation.
Technical Paper

Research on the Development Path and Policy Recommendations of Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperation

By looking into the vehicle-infrastructure cooperation (VIC) which is oriented towards intelligent, networked and integrated development, this paper analyzes and proposes the essence and development direction of Intelligent Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperation Systems (I-VICS). With an in-depth analysis of technologies of core importance to VIC and influence factors that constrain VIC development as a whole, the paper comes up with a technological route for VIC, and identifies a direction for vehicle-infrastructure cooperative development that progresses from primary to intermediate cooperation, then to advanced cooperation, and finally to full-fledged cooperation. Policy recommendations aiming at strengthening top-level design, building an integrated vehicle-infrastructure-cloud platform, expediting independence of key techs, building robust standards and regulations for VIC, enhancing workforce development as well as greater efforts at market promotion are put forward.
Research Report

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on Grid Energy Buffering

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on Grid Energy Buffering discusses the unsettled issues and requirements needed to realize the potential of EV batteries for demand response and grid services, such as improved battery management, control strategies, and enhanced cybersecurity. Hybrid and fuel cell EVs have significant potential to act as “peakers” for longer duration buffering, and this approach has the potential to provide all the long-term energy buffering required by a VRE-intensive grid.
Research Report

Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles, Facial Recognition, and Privacy Rights

Facial recognition software (FRS) is a form of biometric security that detects a face, analyzes it, converts it to data, and then matches it with images in a database. This technology is currently being used in vehicles for safety and convenience features, such as detecting driver fatigue, ensuring ride share drivers are wearing a face covering, or unlocking the vehicle. Public transportation hubs can also use FRS to identify missing persons, intercept domestic terrorism, deter theft, and achieve other security initiatives. However, biometric data is sensitive and there are numerous remaining questions about how to implement and regulate FRS in a way that maximizes its safety and security potential while simultaneously ensuring individual’s right to privacy, data security, and technology-based equality.
Technical Paper

Medical Cargo Delivery using Blockchain Enabled Unmanned Aircraft Systems

Significant growth of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has unlocked many services and applications opportunities in the healthcare sector. Aerial transportation of medical cargo delivery can be an effective and alternative way to ground-based transport systems in times of emergency. To improve the security and the trust of such aerial transportation systems, Blockchain can be used as a potential technology to manage, operate and monitor the entire process. In this paper, we present a blockchain network solution based on Ethereum for the transportation of medical cargo such as blood, medicines, vaccines, etc. The smart contract solution developed in solidity language was tested using the Truffle program. Ganache blockchain test network was employed to host the blockchain network and test the operation of the proposed blockchain model. The suitability of the model is validated in real-time using a UAV and all the flight data are captured and uploaded into the blockchain.