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Article

Modern approaches to electric vehicle noise and vibration

2021-08-17
Range, charging infrastructure, battery costs, etc. come to mind when discussing electric vehicles, but often overlooked are the vehicle’s noise and vibration characteristics. ...Range, charging infrastructure, battery costs, etc. come to mind when discussing electric vehicles, but often overlooked are the vehicle’s noise and vibration characteristics.
Technical Paper

Impact on the demand for elements used in battery manufacturing associated with increased fleet of electric and hybrid vehicles

2021-03-26
2020-36-0102
Thus, this work aims to make an assessment on the feasibility of massive fleet electrification and address the future demands of metals used in batteries, as well as their environmental impacts. ...Thus, this work aims to make an assessment on the feasibility of massive fleet electrification and address the future demands of metals used in batteries, as well as their environmental impacts. For this purpose, battery technologies with applications in the electric car market were identified and the total volume of most critical metals for a lithium-ion battery production chain was estimated. ...Some countries have announced plans to ban vehicles that use an internal combustion engine and are now promoting incentives for the consumption of hybrids and electric ones.
Technical Paper

Foresight Analysis of Power Demand Due to Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2011-01-19
2011-26-0049
The technology advances in power electronics and energy storage technologies promises to bring plug-in electric vehicles (both battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) into the commercial domain. ...However, charging of plug-in electric vehicles can potentially increase peak power demand on power distribution network, and may have impact on various grid assets including thermal loading, voltage, unbalance, losses etc. ...In order to estimate the potential impacts, we must estimate the additional power demands and its temporal variations due to charging of plug-in electric vehicles. A scenario-based analysis of the impact on the electric power grid has been taken, with Delhi as a case example case.
Technical Paper

Variability in Driving Conditions and its Impact on Energy Consumption of Urban Battery Electric and Hybrid Buses

2020-04-14
2020-01-0598
Utilizing models of a conventional diesel, hybrid electric, and battery electric bus, the CO2 emission for each type of transportation bus is estimated. ...Reducing and eliminating the emission from public transportation vehicles plays a major role in contributing towards lowering the emission level. Battery electric buses are regarded as a type of promising green mass transportation as they provide the advantage of less greenhouse gas emissions per passenger. ...Finally, recommendations are made for charge requirements of battery electric buses considering the variation in drive conditions which can result to an increase in the required charging time as high as 20%.
Technical Paper

Driver´s View on the Introduction of Electric Vehicles in the Taxi Fleet of a Brazilian Large City

2017-11-07
2017-36-0089
In Brazil, since the purchase cost of an electric vehicle (EV) is still very high, the exchange of a conventional vehicle by an EV would only be worth if the vehicle was used as source income, such as the case of taxis. ...In Brazil, since the purchase cost of an electric vehicle (EV) is still very high, the exchange of a conventional vehicle by an EV would only be worth if the vehicle was used as source income, such as the case of taxis. Short run distances and high daily mileage make conventional taxis ideal candidates to be replaced by battery EVs. ...The taxi fleet in this city has currently 7,152 vehicles, all powered by internal combustion engines, significantly contributing to equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2eq) emissions since the daily distance traveled is high.
Technical Paper

The Performance of Future ICE and Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Fleet Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1011
The assessment results show that significant opportunities are available for improving the efficiency of mainstream gasoline and diesel engines and transmissions, and reducing vehicle resistances. Battery parallel hybrid systems with these improved engines and vehicles are more efficient still, but are significantly more costly. ...Vehicles with fuel cell systems, with gaseous hydrogen as fuel, are also significantly more efficient, but when the hydrogen fuel production energy is included in the assessment, no significant advantage remains. The impacts of several of these vehicle technologies on US light-duty vehicle fleet fuel consumption were also assessed, using an empirical data-based model of the in-use fleet as it evolves over time. ...The impacts of several of these vehicle technologies on US light-duty vehicle fleet fuel consumption were also assessed, using an empirical data-based model of the in-use fleet as it evolves over time. Fleet impacts are delayed due to both the time required for new and improved technologies to be mass produced and spread substantially across total new vehicle production, and due to the 15 year vehicle lifetime.
Journal Article

Charger Sizing for Long-Range Battery Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0427
The falling cost of lithium ion batteries combined with an ongoing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is driving the proliferation of affordable long-range battery electric vehicles (BEVs). However, an inherent challenge with longer-range BEVs is the increased time required to fully charge the battery using standard 120/240 V AC power outlets. ...However, an inherent challenge with longer-range BEVs is the increased time required to fully charge the battery using standard 120/240 V AC power outlets. One approach to address this issue involves moving to higher power onboard AC chargers; however, household and utility wiring may not allow for the full capability of these higher power chargers. ...The falling cost of lithium ion batteries combined with an ongoing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is driving the proliferation of affordable long-range battery electric vehicles (BEVs).
Book

Electric and Hybrid-Electric Vehicles - Fuel Cell Hybrid EVs

2010-11-29
Topics covered include: Advances in powertrain systems for fuel cell vehicles Diagnostic design processes for developmental vehicles Application of two fuel cells in hybrid electric vehicles Research and design of a centrifugal compressor for fuel cell turbocharger The future of fuel cell hybrid EVs ...With production and planning for new electric vehicles gaining momentum worldwide, this book – the fifth in a series of five volumes on this subject – provides engineers and researchers with perspectives on the most current and innovative developments regarding electric and hybrid-electric vehicle technology, design considerations, and components. ...With production and planning for new electric vehicles gaining momentum worldwide, this book – the fifth in a series of five volumes on this subject – provides engineers and researchers with perspectives on the most current and innovative developments regarding electric and hybrid-electric vehicle technology, design considerations, and components. This book features 14 SAE technical papers, published from 2008 through 2010, that look at innovative engineering approaches to meeting the major technological challenges associated with fuel cells.
Technical Paper

GE Electric Drivetrain Technologies for Lightweight Battery Dominant Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus

2012-04-16
2012-01-1029
Aside from the fuel cell prime mover, the drivetrain elements of a fuel cell hybrid transit bus are those of a heavy-duty series hybrid vehicle. The U.S. ...National Fuel Cell Bus Program is advancing all aspects of fuel cell transit bus technology, including fuel cells and other electric drivetrain technologies. Key electric drivetrain technologies developed by General Electric (GE) in the Lightweight Battery-dominant Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus project, their integration to the vehicle design, together with the vehicle build and demonstration plans are described. ...Key electric drivetrain technologies developed by General Electric (GE) in the Lightweight Battery-dominant Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus project, their integration to the vehicle design, together with the vehicle build and demonstration plans are described.
Technical Paper

Defining Performance Metrics for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0287
The aim of the LIFECar consortium is to manufacture a lightweight, fuel cell hybrid electric sports vehicle. This paper introduces a simulation model for the LIFECar vehicle that has been used to evaluate and compare different powertrain architectures and subsystem options. ...The quantitative assessment and comparison of different hybrid vehicle options has traditionally been done on the basis of measuring or estimating the vehicle's fuel economy over predefined drive-cycles. ...The work presented within this paper constitutes part of the overall design activities associated with the LIFECar programme. The aim of the LIFECar consortium is to manufacture a lightweight, fuel cell hybrid electric sports vehicle.
Book

Electric Motors for Hybrid and Pure Electric Vehicles 2015-2025: Land, Water, Air

2014-11-01
The information is especially important as hybrid vehicles may have the electric motor near the conventional engine or its exhaust, and this may mean they need to tolerate temperatures never before encountered in pure electric vehicles. ...The information is especially important as hybrid vehicles may have the electric motor near the conventional engine or its exhaust, and this may mean they need to tolerate temperatures never before encountered in pure electric vehicles. Motors for highly price-sensitive markets such as electric bikes, scooters, e-rickshaws and micro EVs avoid the price hikes of neodymium and other rare earths in the magnets. ...The electric vehicle business will approach a massive $500 billion in 2025 with the traction motors segment capturing over $25 billion.
Technical Paper

Application of the Ford Sodium-Sulfur Battery in Electric Vehicles

1977-02-01
770382
The Ford Sodium-Sulfur battery is evaluated for applications in electric vehicles. The required power and energy ratings of a battery to achieve acceptable performance and driving range for a specific commuter-type vehicle are calculated and discussed. ...The relative merits of the use of mechanical transmissions and regenerative braking in electric vehicles are explored. Volumes and weights of several battery packages based upon realistic NaS cell designs are calculated, and the thermal management problems of these high-temperature battery packages during the varying power levels required in vehicular applications are discussed. ...The required power and energy ratings of a battery to achieve acceptable performance and driving range for a specific commuter-type vehicle are calculated and discussed.
Journal Article

A Comparative Assessment of Electric Propulsion Systems in the 2030 US Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet

2008-04-14
2008-01-0459
The propulsion systems under consideration include gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), fuel-cell hybrid vehicles (FCVs), and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs). ...This paper quantifies the potential of electric propulsion systems to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2030 U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. ...This paper quantifies the potential of electric propulsion systems to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2030 U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. The propulsion systems under consideration include gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), fuel-cell hybrid vehicles (FCVs), and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs).
Standard

Digital Communications for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2014-12-11
CURRENT
J2931/1_201412
This SAE Information Report SAE J2931 establishes the requirements for digital communication between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV), the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) and the utility or service provider, Energy Services Interface (ESI), Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Home Area Network (HAN). ...This is the third version of this document and completes the effort that specifies the digital communication protocol stack between Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The purpose of the stack outlined in Figure 1 and defined by Layers 3 to 6 of the OSI Reference Model (Figure 1) is to use the functions of Layers 1 and 2 specified in SAE J2931/4 and export the functionalities to Layer 7 as specified in SAE J2847/2 (as of August 1, 2012, revision) and SAE J2847/1 (targeting revision at the end of 2012). ...The purpose of the stack outlined in Figure 1 and defined by Layers 3 to 6 of the OSI Reference Model (Figure 1) is to use the functions of Layers 1 and 2 specified in SAE J2931/4 and export the functionalities to Layer 7 as specified in SAE J2847/2 (as of August 1, 2012, revision) and SAE J2847/1 (targeting revision at the end of 2012).
Technical Paper

Experimental Demonstration of Smart Charging and Demand Response for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Based on SAE Standards

2015-04-14
2015-01-0301
To validate the effectiveness of the developed smart charging system, we conducted experimental demonstration in which a total of 10 customers of Duke Energy regularly used our developed system for approximately one year with simulated time-of-use rate structures and demand response events. We show the users' acceptance for the system usability and demand response events, the cost benefits for users without forcing their patience, and the impact on peak demand shift by the user-friendly system. ...In this paper, we present an implementation of smart charging systems for plug-in electric vehicles based on off-the-shelf communication protocols for smart grids including SAE J2836/2847/J2931 standards and SEP 2.0. ...We show the users' acceptance for the system usability and demand response events, the cost benefits for users without forcing their patience, and the impact on peak demand shift by the user-friendly system.
Technical Paper

Methodology Procedure for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Design

2011-09-11
2011-24-0071
Nowadays, fuel economy and pollutant emissions are keenly felt topics and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent the best opportunity to respond to this problem in the short term. Hybrid electric vehicles meet the high-efficiency of electric motors, with the high reliability of the internal combustion engines, granting optimal results both in terms of emissions and fuel economy. ...Nowadays, fuel economy and pollutant emissions are keenly felt topics and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent the best opportunity to respond to this problem in the short term. ...Hybrid electric vehicles meet the high-efficiency of electric motors, with the high reliability of the internal combustion engines, granting optimal results both in terms of emissions and fuel economy. The vehicle and path features highly affect the architecture choice. A parallel architecture, having a more flexible layout and providing a higher drive power, is more suitable for long paths and higher speeds, while the series one better adapts to urban cycles, as can be switched to a pure electric mode.
Technical Paper

Impact of Hybrid and Electric Mobility in a Medium-Sized Historic City

2013-09-08
2013-24-0077
The data acquired in this way are used to evaluate the performance of four typologies of vehicles: a gasoline city car (Smart Fortwo), the corresponding electric version (Smart ED), three range extenders and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle operating with blended discharge. ...The goal of the investigation is the evaluation of the environmental impact of hybrid and electric mobility in Lecce, a city of about 100,000 inhabitants in southern Italy. ...The data acquired in this way are used to evaluate the performance of four typologies of vehicles: a gasoline city car (Smart Fortwo), the corresponding electric version (Smart ED), three range extenders and a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle operating with blended discharge.
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