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Technical Paper

Medical Cargo Delivery using Blockchain Enabled Unmanned Aircraft Systems

2022-05-26
2022-26-0006
Significant growth of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) has unlocked many services and applications opportunities in the healthcare sector. Aerial transportation of medical cargo delivery can be an effective and alternative way to ground-based transport systems in times of emergency. To improve the security and the trust of such aerial transportation systems, Blockchain can be used as a potential technology to manage, operate and monitor the entire process. In this paper, we present a blockchain network solution based on Ethereum for the transportation of medical cargo such as blood, medicines, vaccines, etc. The smart contract solution developed in solidity language was tested using the Truffle program. Ganache blockchain test network was employed to host the blockchain network and test the operation of the proposed blockchain model. The suitability of the model is validated in real-time using a UAV and all the flight data are captured and uploaded into the blockchain.
Technical Paper

Connected On-Board Inert Gas Generation System with Real-Time Data Access & Machine Learning Approach for Predictive / Prognostics Maintenance

2022-05-26
2022-26-0023
The purpose of the OBIGGS is to reduce the amount of oxygen in the fuel tank to a 'safe' level to significantly reduce the possibility of ignition of fuel vapors. There are circumstances where equipment of OBIGGS like ASMs, Ozone Converter Catalysts, etc. gets degraded earlier than the provided MTBF. This paper studies the present conventional systems limitations, like due to memory constraints only the faults and limited shop data are being recorded, hence there is no provision to store/report the stream of data margins with which we can pass/fail the performance tests. This paper also explains how a new design of the Connected concept achieves access to real-time data from the system and how the data is pushed to the cloud network.
Technical Paper

Applying Blockchain to Vehicle Cybersecurity: Nuance to the Standard Application

2022-03-29
2022-01-0368
In adjusting the data flow, this is an option to increase the cybersecurity for a complete system. This addition to the cybersecurity system provides a clear benefit. ...While this is the traditional application experienced, there are other applications relevant to cybersecurity. As part of the blockchain technology, the nodes are responsible for decision-making.
Technical Paper

Digitalization of a Climate and Altitude Simulation Test Bench for Handheld Power Tools to Automate Its Thermal Management System

2022-03-29
2022-01-0602
Mechanical systems accomplish their tasks better when enhanced with cyber technologies. With the rapidly escalating desire for high efficiency, optimization and flexibility, these physical systems ought to be integrated with cyber technologies that enhance exhaustive manipulation of resources and productivity. The gateway for such a synergetic integration can be referred to as digitalization. Details regarding the digitization of a High-altitude Simulation chamber are discussed thoroughly in this paper. The simulation chamber was originally designed and developed as a test bench to study the characteristics of alternative fuels used in the engines of handheld tools in different altitudes and thermal conditions. It encompasses all the possible realistic temperature variations with altitude raising to 3500m above sea level.
Technical Paper

Attacking Ground Vehicles with Ransomware: Watch the Horizon

2022-03-29
2022-01-0358
Ransomware is not a new method of malware infection. This historically had been experienced in the enterprise in nearly every industry. This has been especially problematic in the medical and manufacturing fields. As the attackers saturate the specifically targeted industries, the attackers will expand their target industries. One of these which has not been significantly explored by the ransomware groups are the embedded systems and automobile environment. This set of targets is massive and provides for a vast attack potential. While this has not experienced this attack methodology at length, the research and efforts are creeping towards this as a natural extension of the business. The research focusses on the history of ransomware, uses in the enterprise, possible attack vectors with ground vehicles, and defenses to be explored and implemented to secure automobiles, fleets, and the industries.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into a CI Pipeline for Automotive Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0117
With the rapid development of connected and autonomous vehicles, more sophisticated automotive systems running large portions of software and implementing a variety of communication interfaces are being developed. The ever-expanding codebase increases the risk for software vulnerabilities, while at the same time the large number of communication interfaces make the systems more susceptible to be targeted by attackers. As such, it is of utmost importance for automotive organizations to identify potential vulnerabilities early and continuously in the development lifecycle in an automated manner. In this paper, we suggest a practical approach for integrating fuzz testing into a Continuous Integration (CI) pipeline for automotive systems. As a first step, we have performed a Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment (TARA) of a general E/E architecture to identify high-risk interfaces and functions.
Technical Paper

Managing Trust Along the CAN Bus

2022-03-29
2022-01-0119
Multiple approaches have been created to enhance intra-vehicle communications security over the past three decades since the introduction of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol. The twin pair differential-mode communications bus is tremendously robust in the face of interference, yet physical access to the bus offers a variety of potential attack vectors whereby false messages and/or denial of service are achievable. This paper evaluates extensions of a Physical-layer (PHY) common-mode watermark-based authentication technique recently developed to improve authentication on the CAN bus by considering the watermark as a side-channel communications means for high value information. We also propose and analyze higher layer algorithms, with benefits and pitfalls, for employing the watermark as a physical-layer firewall.
Technical Paper

Robustness Testing of a Watermarking CAN Transceiver

2022-03-29
2022-01-0106
To help address the issue of message authentication on the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, researchers at Virginia Tech and Ford Motor Company have developed a proof-of-concept time-evolving watermark-based authentication mechanism that offers robust, cryptographically controlled confirmation of a CAN message's authenticity. This watermark is injected as a common-mode signal on both CAN-HI and CAN-LO bus voltages and has been proven using a low-cost software-defined radio (SDR) testbed. This paper extends prior analysis on the design and proof-of-concept to consider robustness testing over the range of voltages, both steady state drifts and transients, as are commonly witnessed within a vehicle. Overall performance results, along with a dynamic watermark amplitude control, validate the concept as being a practical near-term approach at improving authentication confidence of messages on the CAN bus.
Technical Paper

Functional Verification and Validation of Secure Controller Area Network (CAN) Communication

2022-03-29
2022-01-0110
In agriculture industry, increasing use of Vehicle Internet of Things (IoT), telematics and emerging technologies are resulting in smarter machines with connected solutions. Inter and Intra Communication with vehicle to vehicle and inside vehicle - Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to ECU or ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to sensor, requirement for flow of data increased in-turn resulting in increased need for secure communication. In this paper, we focus on functional verification and validation of secure Controller Area Network (CAN) for intra vehicular communication to establish confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and freshness of data, supporting safety, advanced automation, protection of sensitive data and IP (Intellectual Property) protection. Network security algorithms and software security processes are the layers supporting to achieve our cause.
Technical Paper

UDS Security Access for Constrained ECUs

2022-03-29
2022-01-0132
Legacy electronic control units are, nowadays, required to implement cybersecurity measures, but they often do not have all the elements that are necessary to realize industry-standard cybersecurity controls. ...Legacy electronic control units are, nowadays, required to implement cybersecurity measures, but they often do not have all the elements that are necessary to realize industry-standard cybersecurity controls. For example, they may not have hardware cryptographic accelerators, segregated areas of memory for storing keys, or one-time programmable memory areas. ...While the UDS service $27 (Security Access) has a reputation for poor cybersecurity, there is nothing inherent in the way it operates which prevents a secure access-control from being implemented.
Technical Paper

Requirements for the Automated Generation of Attack Trees to Support Automotive Cybersecurity Assurance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0127
Although ISO/SAE 21434 recommends the development of an assurance case for cybersecurity, the precise nature of a cybersecurity case is not explicitly defined within the standard. ...In the case of cybersecurity, this problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of vehicular onboard systems, their inherent obscurity due to their heterogenous architecture, emergent behaviors, and the disparate motivations and resources of potential threat agents.
Technical Paper

Strategy to Adopt ISO/SAE 21434 Cyber Security Assurance Level in the Organization

2022-03-29
2022-01-0121
The recent standard, ISO/SAE 21434, is introduced to address the cybersecurity requirements for the development of electrical and electronic components in the road vehicles. ...This standard has introduced a new classification scheme, cybersecurity assurance level (CAL), that helps in validating the process rigor needed for mitigating different threat scenarios. ...CAL values can be determined at the earlier stages of the SDLC (cybersecurity concept phase) through the knowledge of attack vectors and attack severity specific to a system.
Technical Paper

Future of Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors (AEHTA)

2022-03-29
2022-01-0122
In conjunction with an increasing number of related laws and regulations (such as UNECE R155 and ISO 21434), these drive security requirements in different domains and areas. 2 In this paper we examine the upcoming trends in EE architectures and investigate the underlying cyber-security threats and corresponding security requirements that lead to potential requirements for “Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors” (AEHTA).
Technical Paper

Mechanism for Runtime Kernel Integrity Check without Additional IP and without TEE for Low/Mid Automotive Segments

2022-03-29
2022-01-0125
Vehicles have more connectivity options now-a-days and these increasing connection options are giving more chances for an intruder to exploit the system. So, the vehicle manufacturers need to make the ECU in the vehicle more secure. To make the system secure, the embedded system must secure all the assets in the system. Examples of assets are Software, Kernel or Operating system, cryptographic Keys, Passwords, user data, etc. In this, securing the Kernel is extremely important as an intruder can even exploit the operating system characteristics just by changing the kernel code without introducing a trojan in the system. Also, the Kernel is the one entity that manages all permissions, so, if the kernel is hacked, these permissions also get compromised. The proposed approach is to make the kernel secure by doing the integrity check periodically of the kernel code loaded into the main memory of the system.
Technical Paper

Accelerating In-Vehicle Network Intrusion Detection System Using Binarized Neural Network

2022-03-29
2022-01-0156
Controller Area Network (CAN), the de facto standard for in-vehicle networks, has insufficient security features and thus is inherently vulnerable to various attacks. To protect CAN bus from attacks, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) based on advanced deep learning methods, such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), have been proposed to detect intrusions. However, those models generally introduce high latency, require considerable memory space, and often result in high energy consumption. To accelerate intrusion detection and also reduce memory requests, we exploit the use of Binarized Neural Network (BNN) and hardware-based acceleration for intrusion detection in in-vehicle networks. As BNN uses binary values for activations and weights rather than full precision values, it usually results in faster computation, smaller memory cost, and lower energy consumption than full precision models.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Automated Vehicle Operational Safety Assessment (OSA) Metrics to Measurement and Parameter Uncertainty

2022-03-29
2022-01-0815
As the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) on public roadways expands, there is growing interest in establishing metrics that can be used to evaluate vehicle operational safety. The set of Operational Safety Assessment (OSA) metrics, that include several safety envelope-type metrics, previously proposed by the Institute of Automated Mobility (IAM) are a step towards this goal. The safety envelope OSA metrics can be computed using kinematics derived from video data captured by infrastructure-based cameras and thus do not require on-board sensor data or vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity, though either of the latter data sources could enhance kinematic data accuracy. However, the calculation of some metrics includes certain vehicle-specific parameters that must be assumed or estimated if they are not known a priori or communicated directly by the vehicle.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics in the General Aviation Autonomy Landscape

2022-02-24
EPR2022004
The extent of automation and autonomy used in general aviation (GA) has been accelerating dramatically. This has huge potential benefits for safety given that 75% of accidents in personal and on-demand GA are due to pilot error. However, an approach to certifying autonomous systems that relies on reversionary modes limits their potential to improve safety. Placing a human pilot in a situation where they are suddenly tasked with flying an airplane in a failed situation, often without sufficient situational awareness, is overly demanding. This, coupled with advancing technology that may not align with a deterministic certification paradigm, creates an opportunity for new approaches to certifying autonomous and highly automated aircraft systems.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Drive-by-Wire and Automated Driving System Availability

2022-01-28
EPR2022001
While many observers think that autonomy is right around the corner, there many unsettled issues. One such issue is availability, or how the vehicle behaves in the event of a failure of one of its systems such as those with the latest “by-wire” technologies. Handling of failures at a technical actuation level could involve many aspects, including time of operation after first fault, function/performance after first fault, and exposure after first fault. All of these and other issues are affected by software and electronic and mechanical hardware. Drive-by-wire and Automated Driving System Availability discusses the necessary systems approach required to address these issues. Establishing an industry path forward for these topics will simplify system development and provide a framework for consistent regulation and liability, which is an enabler for the launch of autonomous vehicles. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation

2021-12-15
EPR2021028
On-road vehicles equipped with driving automation features—where a human might not be needed for operation on-board—are entering the mainstream public space. However, questions like “How safe is safe enough?” and “What to do if the system fails?” persist. This is where remote operation comes in, which is an additional layer to the automated driving system where a human remotely assists the so-called “driverless” vehicle in certain situations. Such remote-operation solutions introduce additional challenges and potential risks as the entire vehicle-network-human now needs to work together safely, effectively, and practically. Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation highlights technical questions (e.g., network latency, bandwidth, cyber security) and human aspects (e.g., workload, attentiveness, situational awareness) of remote operation and introduces evolving solutions.
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