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Technical Paper

“Connected Vehicles – A Testing Approach and Methodology”

2021-09-22
2021-26-0450
With the introduction of Connected vehicles, it is possible to extend the limited horizon of vehicles on the road by collective perceptions, where vehicles periodically share their information with others vehicles / servers using cloud. Nevertheless, by the time the connected vehicle spread expands, it is critical to understand the validation techniques which can be used to ensure a flawless transfer of data and connectivity. Usually the connected vehicle validation is limited to Application layer only in most of the OEMs. However in this work, we focus on validation of all the 4 layers involved namely, Physical hardware layer, Communication layer, Cloud platform and Application layer. For physical and communication layer, we simulated the in-vehicle environment using standalone vehicle electronic control units (ECUs) which communicate with the telematics control unit (TCU) available in the vehicle and a localized load box for replicating the actual load cases.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Oriented Distributed Test Strategy for FOTA/SOTA enabled Edge Device

2021-09-22
2021-26-0476
In order to enhance customer experience and to reduce time to market, the manufacturers are constantly in need of being able to update software/firmware of the Electronic Control units (ECU) when the vehicle is in field operations. The updates could be a bug fix or a new feature release. Until the recent years, the updation of software/firmware used to be done using a physical hardwired connection to the Vehicle in a workshop. However, with the element of connectivity being added to the vehicle, the updation of software can be done remotely and wirelessly over the air using a feature called Flash over the air (FOTA) and Software over the air (SOTA). In order to safeguard the telematics ECU from tampering or hacking, the manufacturers are doing away with the ports on the underlying hardware through which manual flashing used to be done. This means that, the only option available to flash or update the ECU is using FOTA/SOTA.
Technical Paper

Detection method for Cybersecurity attack on Connected vehicles

2021-07-21
2021-01-1249
We propose a cybersecurity attack detection and defending mechanism algorithm with the help of onboard cybersecurity diagnostic system on an electronic control unit (ECU) on connected vehicles. ...This control method autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an onboard diagnostic (OBD) interface, such as OBD2 and display freeze-frame data from the sensors and components of the vehicle at the time when a fault by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an communication structure where the vehicle sensors and onboard ECUs are connected with each other via an internal network
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Streamlined Process for Cloud Based Diagnostics Using Amazon Web Services

2021-04-06
2021-01-0159
In the age of 5G, the cloud constitutes a massive computational resource. Such capability is greatly underutilized, especially for the purpose of vehicle diagnostics and prognostics. Diagnostics and prognostics run mostly in the limited and cost sensitive electronic module of the vehicle. Utilizing vehicle connectivity, along with the massive capability of the cloud would allow the deployment of smarter algorithms that provide improved vehicle performance and operation management. In this paper, a streamlined process to develop and deploy off-board diagnostics is presented. The process included developing multiphysics digital twins and running the diagnostics off-board. It was demonstrated on a fleet of virtual Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). The Digital Twin replica was created using Simulink® and Simscape®. The microcontroller used to demonstrate the diagnostic is a Raspberry Pi hardware running in real time.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Real Time Vulnerability Fixes Verification Mechanism for Automotive Firmware/Software

2021-04-06
2021-01-0183
Software vulnerability management is one of the most critical and crucial security techniques, which analyzes the automotive software/firmware across the digital cockpit, ADAS, V2X, etc. domains for vulnerabilities, and provides security patches for the concerned Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The process of automotive SW/FW vulnerability management system between the OEMs and vendors happen through a channel of fixing a certain number of vulnerabilities by 1st tier supplier which needs to be verified in front of OEMs for the fixed number and type of patches in there deliverable SW/FW. The gap of verification between for the fixed patches between the OEMs and 1st tier supplier requires a reliable human independent intelligent technique to have a trustworthiness of verification.
Technical Paper

Vehicular Visual Sensor Blinding Detection by Integrating Variational Autoencoders with SVM

2021-04-06
2021-01-0144
The advancements of autonomous vehicles or advanced driver assistance systems in terms of safety, driving experience, and comfort against manual driving results in extensive adoption of them across the modern automotive sector. The autonomous vehicles are equipped with numerous sensing and actuating components both inside as well as outside the vehicles to perceive the environment, perform path planning, and intelligently control the autonomous vehicles. The perception mechanism includes fused information of multiple sensors such as camera, RADAR, and LiDAR to effectively understand all the dynamic driving environments. Some of the intentional and unintentional mechanisms such as cyber-attacks and natural variations of the environment, etc., across the sensor's external interface with the environment cause the degradation of the perception mechanism.
Technical Paper

Implementation Methodologies for Simulation as a Service (SaaS) to Develop ADAS Applications

2021-04-06
2021-01-0116
Over the years, the complexity of autonomous vehicle development (and concurrently the verification and validation) has grown tremendously in terms of component-, subsystem- and system-level interactions between autonomy and the human users. Simulation-based testing holds significant promise in helping to identify both problematic interactions between component-, subsystem-, and system-levels as well as overcoming delays typically introduced by the default full-scale on-road testing. Software in Loop (SiL) simulation is utilized as an intermediate step towards software deployment for autonomous vehicles (AV) to make them reliable. SiL efforts can help reduce the resources required for successful deployment by helping to validate the software for millions of road miles. A key enabler for accelerating SiL processes is the ability to use Simulation as a Service (SaaS) rather than just isolated instances of software.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into the Cybersecurity Validation Strategy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0139
Therefore, modern cybersecurity validation is highly stressed for finding security vulnerabilities and robustness issues early and systematically at every stage of the product development process. ...The integration of a sophisticated fuzz testing program within the overall cybersecurity validation strategy allows for accommodating towards these challenging demands. In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing. ...In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles.
Technical Paper

THARA - A Framework to Align the Functional Safety and Security Process in Automotive Domain

2021-04-06
2021-01-0148
The underlying systems are susceptible to safety and cybersecurity attacks as the involved ECUs are interconnected. The security attacks can lead to disrupting the safe operation of the vehicle while causing injury to the passengers. ...Consequently, the functional safety requirements and cybersecurity requirements can be aligned with each other. In this paper, a case study of the application of the THARA framework is presented through the risk analysis of safety and security threats applicable to the rear-view camera (RVC) feature of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Zero-Day Attack Defenses and Test Framework for Connected Mobility ECUs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0141
Recent developments in the commercialization of mobility services have brought unprecedented connectivity to the automotive sector. While the adoption of connected features provides significant benefits to vehicle owners, adversaries may leverage zero-day attacks to target the expanded attack surface and make unauthorized access to sensitive data. Protecting new generations of automotive controllers against malicious intrusions requires solutions that do not depend on conventional countermeasures, which often fall short when pitted against sophisticated exploitation attempts. In this paper, we describe some of the latent risks in current automotive systems along with a well-engineered multi-layer defense strategy. Further, we introduce a novel and comprehensive attack and performance test framework which considers state-of-the-art memory corruption attacks, countermeasures and evaluation methods.
Technical Paper

Study of Information Security Technology Standard System for Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2021-01-22
2021-01-5022
This paper analyzed information security challenges faced by Intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV), summarized the automotive information security technology standards and regulations developed by leading automotive industrial counties and international organizations, such as UN/WP.29 and ISO/TC22, and discussed the significant and necessity of the research work on ICV information security standard system in China. Focus on driving security, the paper also proposed the basic principles, logics and a systematic frame for building automotive information security standard system, and elaborated the contents and categories of the information security standards in the system. From whole perspective, suggestions for standard system construction and related research plan were proposed.
Technical Paper

Technical Trends of the Intelligent Connected Vehicle and Development Stage Division for Freeway Traffic Control

2020-12-30
2020-01-5134
It is deemed that currently the intelligent connected vehicle (ICV) is in its early stage of development, and it will go through multiple development stages in the future to realize its final goal—autonomous driving. Based on the existing ICV researches, this paper believes that ICV can be used to improve the efficiency and safety of freeway. The current research of ICV has two main directions: one focuses on the traffic flow characteristics of vehicles with different attributes, the other is concerned with using ICV to reduce congestion. From the policies issued by countries around the world and the development plans promoted by major vehicle manufacturers, the future development trends and challenges of ICV are analyzed. ICV must overcome all the shortcomings to achieve its final goal, including insufficient hardware capabilities or excessive cost, and the degree of intelligence that needs to be improved.
Technical Paper

Development and Research of Environment Perception Technology in Intelligent Networked Transportation System

2020-12-30
2020-01-5152
As an important part of intelligent driving vehicles and intelligent networked transportation systems, environmental perception technology can provide important decision-making basis for the overall planning of intelligent driving vehicles and transportation systems. This paper reviews the current research on environment perception technology in the current intelligent networked transportation system, and analyzes four key research directions and related progress of environmental sensing technologies, including single sensor device, high-precision map, multi-sensor information fusion and vehicle-road collaboration. On the basis of analyzing and summarizing existing related research, this article elaborates the development trend and key directions of future environmental perception technology, including the integration of deep learning, vehicle-road integration, information security and multi-dimensional perception technology related development directions.
Technical Paper

Service Analysis of Autonomous Driving

2020-12-30
2020-01-5194
Autonomous driving represents the ultimate goal of future automobile development. As a collaborative application that integrates vehicles, road infrastructure, network and cloud, autonomous driving business requires a high-degree dynamic cooperation among multiple resources such as data, computing and communications that are distributed throughout the system. In order to meet the anticipated high demand for resources and performance requirements of autonomous driving, and to ensure the safety and comfort of the vehicle users and pedestrians, a top concern of autonomous driving is to understand the system requirements for resources and conduct an in-depth analysis of the autonomous driving business. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the typical business for autonomous driving and establishes an analysis model for five common capabilities, i.e. collection, transmission, intelligent computing, human-machine interaction (HMI), and security.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Human and Autonomous Vehicle Interaction

2020-12-18
EPR2020025
This report examines the current interaction points between humans and autonomous systems, with a particular focus on advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), the requirements for human-machine interfaces as imposed by human perception, and finally, the progress being made to close the gap. Autonomous technology has the potential to benefit personal transportation, last-mile delivery, logistics, and many other mobility applications enormously. In many of these applications, the mobility infrastructure is a shared resource in which all the players must cooperate. In fact, the driving task has been described as a “tango” where we—as humans—cooperate naturally to enable a robust transportation system. Can autonomous systems participate in this tango? Does that even make sense? And if so, how do we make it happen? Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Autonomous Public Transportation Systems

2020-10-30
EPR2020020
With billions of dollars of investment and events like DARPA’s Grand Challenges automated driving technology has been making its way toward commercialization. While the enabling technology for SAE Level 4 and 5 automated vehicles (AV) has not yet matured, specific restricted-use models such as “robo-taxis” and automated truck convoying show great promise. Now, cities are across the world are looking to AVs to solve their public transportation issues. With low speeds and fixed route, public transportation is an ideal application for AVs. From a business angle, AVs could leverage existing public transport models and infrastructure while providing superior quality of service for disadvantaged communities. Yet, dense urban environments—which would benefit from automated transportation the most—present unique challenges and public sector requirements. This SAE EDGE™ Research Report by Dr.
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