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Technical Paper

Towards Establishing Continuous-X Pipeline Using Modular Software-in-the-Loop Test Environments

2021-09-22
2021-26-0412
Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) test environments are the ideal virtual platforms for enabling continuous-development, -integration, -testing -delivery or -deployment commonly referred as Continuous-X (CX) of the complex functionalities in the current automotive industry. This trend especially is contributed by several factors such as the industry wide standardization of the model exchange formats, interfaces as well as architecture definitions. The approach of frontloading software testing with SiL test environments is predominantly advocated as well as already adopted by various Automotive OEMs, thereby the demand for innovating applicable methods is increasing. However, prominent usage of the existing monolithic architecture for interaction of various elements in the SiL environment, without regarding the separation between functional and non-functional test scope, is reducing the usability and thus limiting significantly the cost saving potential of CX with SiL.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Technical Paper

It Takes a Village: A Case Study of Business Development and Innovation in a UAS/AUS Ecosystem to Address Critical Industry Challenges

2021-06-16
2021-01-1002
Entrepreneurial innovation that spurs economic development requires a collaborative cluster of cooperative effort, across a diverse ecosystem of partners. Literature provides resounding evidence to support the notion that an innovative, entrepreneurial ecosystem is critical to both successful economic development and industry sector growth. The UAS/AUS industry sector is a fast-growing sector across the United States, with regional leadership demonstrated in North Dakota, California, North Carolina, New York, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. This case study is focused on investigating how the North Dakota autonomous systems ecosystem continues to evolves and develop mechanisms and partnerships to address industry pain points, facilitate cutting edge research, ensure high-quality UAS/AUS testing, and support an adaptive business development pipeline across the entrepreneurial life cycle.
Technical Paper

Streamlined Process for Cloud Based Diagnostics Using Amazon Web Services

2021-04-06
2021-01-0159
In the age of 5G, the cloud constitutes a massive computational resource. Such capability is greatly underutilized, especially for the purpose of vehicle diagnostics and prognostics. Diagnostics and prognostics run mostly in the limited and cost sensitive electronic module of the vehicle. Utilizing vehicle connectivity, along with the massive capability of the cloud would allow the deployment of smarter algorithms that provide improved vehicle performance and operation management. In this paper, a streamlined process to develop and deploy off-board diagnostics is presented. The process included developing multiphysics digital twins and running the diagnostics off-board. It was demonstrated on a fleet of virtual Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). The Digital Twin replica was created using Simulink® and Simscape®. The microcontroller used to demonstrate the diagnostic is a Raspberry Pi hardware running in real time.
Technical Paper

xEV Propulsion System Control-Overview and Current Trends

2021-04-06
2021-01-0781
Propulsion system control algorithms covering the functional needs of xEV propulsion (‘x’ donates P0-P4 configurations) systems are presented in this paper. The scope and foundation are based on generic well-established HEV controller architectures. However, unlike conventional HEV (series, parallel and power split) powertrains, the next generation of integrated electric propulsion configurations will utilize a single micro controller that supports multiple control functions ranging from the electric machines, inverters, actuators, clutch solenoids, coolant pumps, etc. This presents a unique challenge to architect control algorithms within the AUTOSAR framework while satisfying the complex timing requirements of motor/generator-inverter (MGi) control and increased interface definitions between software components to realize functional integration between the higher level propulsion system and its sub-systems.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Adopting Blockchain Technology in Aerospace

2020-10-30
EPR2020021
In the aerospace industry, competition is high and the need to ensure safety and security while managing costs is paramount. Furthermore, stakeholders—who gain the most by working together—do not necessarily trust each other. Now, mix that with changing enterprise technologies, management of historical records, and customized legacy systems. This issue touches all aspects of the aerospace industry, from frequent flyer miles to aircraft maintenance and drives tremendous inefficiency and cost. Technology that augments, rather than replaces, is needed to transform these complex systems into efficient, digital processes. Blockchain technology offers collaborative opportunities for solving some of the data problems that have long challenged the industry. This SAE EDGE™ Research Report by Rhonda D. Walthall examines how blockchain technology could impact the aerospace industry and addresses some of the unsettled concerns surrounding its implementation.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Policy Aspects of Automated Driving Systems

2020-08-31
EPR2020016
Automated driving systems (ADS) represent an area of considerable investment and activity within the transportation sphere. The potential impact of ADS on safety, efficiency, and user experience are extremely significant. To get the most from the technology, it is important to ensure that policies are developed to support the balance between achieving public sector objectives and supporting private sector innovation. This SAE EDGE™ Research Report explores the policy aspects related to ADS technology, explains the key stakeholders, identifies unsettled issues, and proposes a number of steps to move forward and improve the current situation. It is hoped that the report will provide a valuable resource to those involved in the definition of ADS policy from both public and private perspectives. It is also intended to serve as a resource for those involved in ADS planning and development and public sector staff involved in other aspects beyond ADS policy.
Journal Article

Chip and Board Level Digital Forensics of Cummins Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

2020-04-14
2020-01-1326
Crashes involving Cummins powered heavy vehicles can damage the electronic control module (ECM) containing heavy vehicle event data recorder (HVEDR) records. When ECMs are broken and data cannot be extracted using vehicle diagnostics tools, more invasive and low-level techniques are needed to forensically preserve and decode HVEDR data. A technique for extracting non-volatile memory contents using non-destructive board level techniques through the available in-circuit debugging port is presented. Additional chip level data extraction techniques can also provide access to the HVEDR data. Once the data is obtained and preserved in a forensically sound manner, the binary record is decoded to reveal typical HVDER data like engine speed, vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, and other status data. The memory contents from the ECM can be written to a surrogate and decoded with traditional maintenance and diagnostic software.
Technical Paper

Test Method for the SAE J3138 Automotive Cyber Security Standard

2020-04-14
2020-01-0142
This paper will provide an Overview of Automotive Cyber Security Standards related to the Vehicle OBD-II Data Link. The OBD-II Connector Attack Tree is described with respect to the SAE J3138 requirements for Intrusive vs. non-Intrusive Services. A proposed test method for SAE J3138 is described including hardware and software scripting. Finally, example test results are reviewed and compared with a potential threat boundary.
Technical Paper

Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation - An Academia Perspective

2019-10-14
2019-01-2620
This paper and the associated lecture present an overview of technology trends and of market and business opportunities created by technology, as well as of the challenges posed by environmental and economic considerations. Commercial vehicles are one of the engines of our economy. Moving goods and people efficiently and economically is a key to continued industrial development and to strong employment. Trucks are responsible for nearly 70% of the movement of goods in the USA (by value) and represent approximately 300 billion of the 3.21 trillion annual vehicle miles travelled by all vehicles in the USA while public transit enables mobility and access to jobs for millions of people, with over 10 billion trips annually in the USA creating and sustaining employment opportunities.
Technical Paper

Analyze This! Sound Static Analysis for Integration Verification of Large-Scale Automotive Software

2019-04-02
2019-01-1246
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. One such requirement, imposed by all contemporary safety standards, is that no critical run-time errors must occur. Runtime errors can be caused by undefined or unspecified behavior of the programming language; examples are buffer overflows or data races. They may cause erroneous or erratic behavior, induce system failures, and constitute security vulnerabilities. A sound static analyzer reports all such defects in the code, or proves their absence. Sound static program analysis is a verification technique recommended by ISO/FDIS 26262 for software unit verification and for the verification of software integration. In this article we propose an analysis methodology that has been implemented with the static analyzer Astrée. It supports quick turn-around times and gives highly precise whole-program results.
Technical Paper

Trust-Based Control and Scheduling for UGV Platoon under Cyber Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-1077
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) may encounter difficulties accommodating environmental uncertainties and system degradations during harsh conditions. However, human experience and onboard intelligence can may help mitigate such cases. Unfortunately, human operators have cognition limits when directly supervising multiple UGVs. Ideally, an automated decision aid can be designed that empowers the human operator to supervise the UGVs. In this paper, we consider a connected UGV platoon under cyber attacks that may disrupt safety and degrade performance. An observer-based resilient control strategy is designed to mitigate the effects of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cyber attacks. In addition, each UGV generates both internal and external evaluations based on the platoons performance metrics. A cloud-based trust-based information management system collects these evaluations to detect abnormal UGV platoon behaviors.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E Architecture and Its Adaptation to New Technical Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0862
With the ever-increasing requirements on vehicle performance, as well as the trend of vehicle becoming an integral part of a much bigger ecosystem involving automated driving, intelligent transportation and smart city, more and more electrical/electronic (E/E) systems are integrated in vehicles. Vehicle E/E architecture being the fundamental organization of E/E components, the relationship among the components and with the environment, as well as the principles guiding the design and evolution, has essential influences on vehicle E/E system functions and performance. This paper gives the definition of vehicle E/E architecture and provides different views. The guidelines, contents and process of E/E architecture design are discussed. The evolution of E/E architecture, influence of the latest technical trends including electrification, automated driving, and connectivity functions on E/E architecture, and how vehicle E/E architecture adapts to the technical trends are studied.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Sensors for Automated Road Vehicles

2018-10-18
EPR2018001
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the new generation of sensors designed for vehicles capable of automated driving. Four main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, specifying a standardized terminology and taxonomy to be used for discussing the sensors required by automated vehicles. Second, generating standardized tests and procedures for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, creating a standardized set of tools and methods to ensure the security, robustness, and integrity of data collected by such sensors. The fourth issue, regarding the ownership and privacy of data collected by automated vehicle sensors, is considered only briefly here since its scope far exceeds the technical issues that are the primary focus of the present report. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Technical Paper

Secure Deterministic L2/L3 Ethernet Networking for Integrated Architectures

2017-09-19
2017-01-2103
Cybersecurity attacks exploit vulnerabilities related to the increased complexity and connectivity of critical infrastructure systems. ...Network security is a core component of the overall cyber-security and defense-in-depth capability for distributed architectures. Protection mechanism for information, interface and system integrity, communication availability, and data confidentiality are required for design of safe and secure integrated embedded infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0020
Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
Technical Paper

Cyber Security in the Automotive Domain – An Overview

2017-03-28
2017-01-1652
Driven by the growing internet and remote connectivity of automobiles, combined with the emerging trend to automated driving, the importance of security for automotive systems is massively increasing. Although cyber security is a common part of daily routines in the traditional IT domain, necessary security mechanisms are not yet widely applied in the vehicles. At first glance, this may not appear to be a problem as there are lots of solutions from other domains, which potentially could be re-used. But substantial differences compared to an automotive environment have to be taken into account, drastically reducing the possibilities for simple reuse. Our contribution is to address automotive electronics engineers who are confronted with security requirements. Therefore, it will firstly provide some basic knowledge about IT security and subsequently present a selection of automotive specific security use cases.
Technical Paper

Cyber-security for Engine ECUs: Past, Present and Future

2015-09-01
2015-01-1998
In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
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