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Technical Paper

Connected Vehicles - A Testing Approach and Methodology

2021-09-22
2021-26-0450
With the introduction of Connected Vehicles, it is possible to extend the limited horizon of vehicles on the road by collective perceptions, where vehicles periodically share their information with other vehicles and servers using cloud. Nevertheless, by the time the connected vehicle spread expands, it is critical to understand the validation techniques which can be used to ensure a flawless transfer of data and connectivity. Connected vehicles are mainly characterized by the smartphone application which is provided to the end customers to access the connectivity features in the vehicle. The end result which is delivered to the customer is through the integrated telematics unit in the vehicle which communicates through a communication layer with the cloud platform. The cloud server in turn interacts with the final application layer of the mobile application given to the customer.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Oriented Distributed Test Strategy for FOTA/SOTA Enabled Edge Device

2021-09-22
2021-26-0476
In order to enhance customer experience [5] and to reduce time to market, the manufacturers are constantly in need of being able to update software/firmware of the Electronic Control units (ECU) when the vehicle is in field operations. The updates could be a bug fix or a new feature release. Until the recent years, the updation of software/firmware used to be done using a physical hardwired connection to the Vehicle in a workshop. However, with the element of connectivity being added to the vehicle, the updation of software can be done remotely and wirelessly over the air using a feature called Flash over the air (FOTA) [2] and Software over the air (SOTA) [2]. In order to safeguard the telematics [3] ECU from tampering or hacking, the manufacturers are doing away with the ports on the underlying hardware through which manual flashing used to be done. This means that, the only option available to flash or update the ECU is using FOTA/SOTA.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Real Time Vulnerability Fixes Verification Mechanism for Automotive Firmware/Software

2021-04-06
2021-01-0183
Software vulnerability management is one of the most critical and crucial security techniques, which analyzes the automotive software/firmware across the digital cockpit, ADAS, V2X, etc. domains for vulnerabilities, and provides security patches for the concerned Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The process of automotive SW/FW vulnerability management system between the OEMs and vendors happen through a channel of fixing a certain number of vulnerabilities by 1st tier supplier which needs to be verified in front of OEMs for the fixed number and type of patches in there deliverable SW/FW. The gap of verification between for the fixed patches between the OEMs and 1st tier supplier requires a reliable human independent intelligent technique to have a trustworthiness of verification.
Technical Paper

Secure Controller Area Network Logging

2021-04-06
2021-01-0136
Practical encryption is an important tool in improving the cybersecurity posture of vehicle data loggers and engineering tools. However, low-cost embedded systems struggle with reliably capturing and encrypting all frames on the vehicle networks.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into the Cybersecurity Validation Strategy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0139
Therefore, modern cybersecurity validation is highly stressed for finding security vulnerabilities and robustness issues early and systematically at every stage of the product development process. ...The integration of a sophisticated fuzz testing program within the overall cybersecurity validation strategy allows for accommodating towards these challenging demands. In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing. ...In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles.
Technical Paper

THARA - A Framework to Align the Functional Safety and Security Process in Automotive Domain

2021-04-06
2021-01-0148
The underlying systems are susceptible to safety and cybersecurity attacks as the involved ECUs are interconnected. The security attacks can lead to disrupting the safe operation of the vehicle while causing injury to the passengers. ...Consequently, the functional safety requirements and cybersecurity requirements can be aligned with each other. In this paper, a case study of the application of the THARA framework is presented through the risk analysis of safety and security threats applicable to the rear-view camera (RVC) feature of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Zero-Day Attack Defenses and Test Framework for Connected Mobility ECUs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0141
Recent developments in the commercialization of mobility services have brought unprecedented connectivity to the automotive sector. While the adoption of connected features provides significant benefits to vehicle owners, adversaries may leverage zero-day attacks to target the expanded attack surface and make unauthorized access to sensitive data. Protecting new generations of automotive controllers against malicious intrusions requires solutions that do not depend on conventional countermeasures, which often fall short when pitted against sophisticated exploitation attempts. In this paper, we describe some of the latent risks in current automotive systems along with a well-engineered multi-layer defense strategy. Further, we introduce a novel and comprehensive attack and performance test framework which considers state-of-the-art memory corruption attacks, countermeasures and evaluation methods.
Journal Article

Using Delphi and System Dynamics for IoT Cybersecurity: Preliminary Airport Implications

2021-03-02
2021-01-0019
Day by day, airports adopt more IoT devices. However, airports are not exempt from possible failures due to malware’s proliferation that can abuse vulnerabilities. Computer criminals can access, corrupt, and extract information from individuals or companies. This paper explains the development of a propagation model, which started with a Delphi process. We discuss the preliminary implications for airports of the simulation model built from the Delphi recommendations.
Technical Paper

Study of Information Security Technology Standard System for Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2021-01-22
2021-01-5022
This paper analyzed information security challenges faced by Intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV), summarized the automotive information security technology standards and regulations developed by leading automotive industrial counties and international organizations, such as UN/WP.29 and ISO/TC22, and discussed the significant and necessity of the research work on ICV information security standard system in China. Focus on driving security, the paper also proposed the basic principles, logics and a systematic frame for building automotive information security standard system, and elaborated the contents and categories of the information security standards in the system. From whole perspective, suggestions for standard system construction and related research plan were proposed.
Technical Paper

Technical Trends of the Intelligent Connected Vehicle and Development Stage Division for Freeway Traffic Control

2020-12-30
2020-01-5134
It is deemed that currently the intelligent connected vehicle (ICV) is in its early stage of development, and it will go through multiple development stages in the future to realize its final goal—autonomous driving. Based on the existing ICV researches, this paper believes that ICV can be used to improve the efficiency and safety of freeway. The current research of ICV has two main directions: one focuses on the traffic flow characteristics of vehicles with different attributes, the other is concerned with using ICV to reduce congestion. From the policies issued by countries around the world and the development plans promoted by major vehicle manufacturers, the future development trends and challenges of ICV are analyzed. ICV must overcome all the shortcomings to achieve its final goal, including insufficient hardware capabilities or excessive cost, and the degree of intelligence that needs to be improved.
Technical Paper

Development and Research of Environment Perception Technology in Intelligent Networked Transportation System

2020-12-30
2020-01-5152
As an important part of intelligent driving vehicles and intelligent networked transportation systems, environmental perception technology can provide important decision-making basis for the overall planning of intelligent driving vehicles and transportation systems. This paper reviews the current research on environment perception technology in the current intelligent networked transportation system, and analyzes four key research directions and related progress of environmental sensing technologies, including single sensor device, high-precision map, multi-sensor information fusion and vehicle-road collaboration. On the basis of analyzing and summarizing existing related research, this article elaborates the development trend and key directions of future environmental perception technology, including the integration of deep learning, vehicle-road integration, information security and multi-dimensional perception technology related development directions.
Technical Paper

Service Analysis of Autonomous Driving

2020-12-30
2020-01-5194
Autonomous driving represents the ultimate goal of future automobile development. As a collaborative application that integrates vehicles, road infrastructure, network and cloud, autonomous driving business requires a high-degree dynamic cooperation among multiple resources such as data, computing and communications that are distributed throughout the system. In order to meet the anticipated high demand for resources and performance requirements of autonomous driving, and to ensure the safety and comfort of the vehicle users and pedestrians, a top concern of autonomous driving is to understand the system requirements for resources and conduct an in-depth analysis of the autonomous driving business. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the typical business for autonomous driving and establishes an analysis model for five common capabilities, i.e. collection, transmission, intelligent computing, human-machine interaction (HMI), and security.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Journal Article

A Novel Assessment and Administration Method of Autonomous Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0708
As a promising strategic industry group that is rapidly evolving around the world, autonomous vehicle is entering a critical phase of commercialization from demonstration to end markets. The global automotive industry and governments are facing new common topics and challenges brought by autonomous vehicle, such as how to test, assess, and administrate the autonomous vehicle to ensure their safe running in real traffic situations and proper interactions with other road users. Starting from the facts that the way to autonomous driving is the process of a robot or a machine taking over driving tasks from a human. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of autonomous vehicle which are different from traditional one, then demonstrates the limitations of the existing certification mechanism and related testing methods when applied to autonomous vehicle.
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