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Technical Paper

Cyber Security Approval Criteria: Application of UN R155

2024-07-02
2024-01-2983
The UN R155 regulation is the first automotive cyber security regulation and has made security a mandatory approval criterion for new vehicle types. This establishes internationally harmonized security requirements for market approval. As a result, the application of the regulation presents manufacturers and suppliers with the challenge of demonstrating compliance. At process level the implementation of a Cyber Security Management System (CSMS) is required while at product level, the Threat Assessment and Risk Analysis (TARA) forms the basis to identify relevant threats and corresponding mitigation strategies. Overall, an issued type approval is internationally recognized by the member states of the UN 1958 Agreement. International recognition implies that uniform assessment criteria are applied to demonstrate compliance and to decide whether security efforts are sufficient.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E Architecture and Key Technologies Enabling Software-Defined Vehicle

2024-04-09
2024-01-2035
This paper gives a definition of the SDV concept, provides views from different aspects, discusses the progress in vehicle E/E architecture, especially zone-based architecture with centralized computation, and various technologies including High-Performance Computing (HPC) platform, standardized vehicle software architecture, advanced onboard communication, Over-The-Air (OTA) update, and cybersecurity etc. that collectively enable the realization of SDV.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Network Security Configuration (NSC) Practices in Vehicle-Related Android Applications

2024-04-09
2024-01-2881
Android applications have historically faced vulnerabilities to man-in-the-middle attacks due to insecure custom SSL/TLS certificate validation implementations. In response, Google introduced the Network Security Configuration (NSC) as a configuration-based solution to improve the security of certificate validation practices. NSC was initially developed to enhance the security of Android applications by providing developers with a framework to customize network security settings. However, recent studies have shown that it is often not being leveraged appropriately to enhance security. Motivated by the surge in vehicular connectivity and the corresponding impact on user security and data privacy, our research pivots to the domain of mobile applications for vehicles. As vehicles increasingly become repositories of personal data and integral nodes in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, ensuring their security moves beyond traditional issues to one of public safety and trust.
Technical Paper

A Zero Trust Architecture for Automotive Networks

2024-04-09
2024-01-2793
Since the early 1990’s, commercial vehicles have suffered from repeated vulnerability exploitations that resulted in a need for improved automotive cybersecurity. This paper outlines the strategies and challenges of implementing an automotive Zero Trust Architecture (ZTA) to secure intra-vehicle networks. ...This research successfully met the four requirements and demonstrated that using ZT principles in an on-vehicle network greatly improved the cybersecurity posture with manageable impact to system performance and deployment.
Technical Paper

Automated TARA Framework for Cybersecurity Compliance of Heavy Duty Vehicles

2024-04-09
2024-01-2809
Consequently, rise of this technological trend is bringing forth safety and cybersecurity challenges in form of new threats, hazards and vulnerabilities. As per the recent UN vehicle regulation 155, several risk-based security models and assessment frameworks have been proposed to counter the growing cybersecurity issues, however, the high budgetary cost to develop the tool and train personnel along with high risk of leakage of trade secrets, hinders the automotive manufacturers from adapting these third party solutions. ...As per the recent UN vehicle regulation 155, several risk-based security models and assessment frameworks have been proposed to counter the growing cybersecurity issues, however, the high budgetary cost to develop the tool and train personnel along with high risk of leakage of trade secrets, hinders the automotive manufacturers from adapting these third party solutions.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity in the Context of Fail-Operational Systems

2024-04-09
2024-01-2808
The development of highly automated driving functions (AD) recently rises the demand for so called Fail-Operational systems for native driving functions like steering and braking of vehicles. Fail-Operational systems shall guarantee the availability of driving functions even in presence of failures. This can also mean a degradation of system performance or limiting a system’s remaining operating period. In either case, the goal is independency from a human driver as a permanently situation-aware safety fallback solution to provide a certain level of autonomy. In parallel, the connectivity of modern vehicles is increasing rapidly and especially in vehicles with highly automated functions, there is a high demand for connected functions, Infotainment (web conference, Internet, Shopping) and Entertainment (Streaming, Gaming) to entertain the passengers, who should no longer occupied with driving tasks.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Training Approach for Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering

2024-04-09
2024-01-2800
A significant milestone in advancing cybersecurity within the automotive industry is the release of the first international standard for automotive cybersecurity ISO/SAE 21434:2021 ‘Road Vehicles — Cybersecurity Engineering’. A recently published type approval regulation for automotive cybersecurity (UN R155) is also tailored for member countries of the UNECE WP.29 alliance. ...Thus, the challenges for embedded automotive systems engineers are increasing while frameworks, tools and shared concepts for cybersecurity engineering and training are scarce. Hence, cybersecurity training in the automotive domain necessitates an understanding of domain-specific intricacies and the unique challenges at the intersection of cybersecurity and embedded systems engineering, elevating the need for improving the skill set and knowledge of automotive cybersecurity engineers. ...Hence, cybersecurity training in the automotive domain necessitates an understanding of domain-specific intricacies and the unique challenges at the intersection of cybersecurity and embedded systems engineering, elevating the need for improving the skill set and knowledge of automotive cybersecurity engineers. This paper delves into an automotive cybersecurity training concept aimed at enhancing the proficiency of development engineers.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cyber Engineering (VCE) Testbed with CLaaS (Cyber-Security Labs as a Service)

2024-04-09
2024-01-2796
The VCE Laboratory testbeds are connected with an Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud-based Cyber-security Labs as a Service (CLaaS) system, which allows students and researchers to access the testbeds from any place that has a secure internet connection. ...VCE students are assigned predefined virtual machines to perform designated cyber-security experiments. The CLaaS system has low administrative overhead associated with experiment setup and management. ...VCE Laboratory CLaaS experiments have been developed for demonstrating man-in-the-middle cyber-security attacks from actual compromised hardware or software connected with the TestCube.
Technical Paper

Applying Concolic Testing to the Automotive Domain

2024-04-09
2024-01-2802
Symbolic code execution is a powerful cybersecurity testing approach that facilitates the systematic exploration of all paths within a program to uncover previously unknown cybersecurity vulnerabilities. ...Symbolic code execution is a powerful cybersecurity testing approach that facilitates the systematic exploration of all paths within a program to uncover previously unknown cybersecurity vulnerabilities. This is achieved through a Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solver, which operates on symbolic values for program inputs instead of using their concrete counterparts.
Technical Paper

Security Requirements for Vehicle Security Gateways

2024-04-09
2024-01-2806
The NMFTA’s Vehicle Cybersecurity Requirements Woking Group (VCRWG), comprised of fleets, OEMs and cybersecurity experts, has worked the past few years to produce security requirements for Vehicle Network Gateways. ...Vehicle Network Gateways play an important role in vehicle cybersecurity – they are the component responsible for assuring vehicle network operations in the presence of untrustworthy devices on the aftermarket or diagnostics connectors.
Technical Paper

Integrating Functional and Component-Level Threat Analyses in Automotive Systems: A Holistic Approach to Risk Assessment

2024-04-09
2024-01-2797
This method's detailed approach ensures that cybersecurity requirements can be readily implemented as a part of feature design, addressing the concerns of feature owners directly. ...This paper will discuss the merits of asset based approach to cybersecurity over attack based recognizing the inherent strengths and limitations of both methods and underscores the need for a unified approach.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Rating Framework and Its Application to J1939-91C Standard

2024-04-09
2024-01-2803
UNECE R155 explicitly references ISO/SAE 21434 and mandates a certified cybersecurity management system (CSMS) as a prerequisite for automotive manufacturers to achieve vehicle type approval and sell new vehicle types. ...However, the gap in the CSMS framework is a lack in a standardized system that provides guidance and common criteria for automakers to measure a vehicle’s level of compliance and compute a publicly accepted cybersecurity rating. To help establish increased consumer confidence, OEMs and smart mobility stakeholders could take additional proactive steps to ensure the safety and security of their products. ...This paper addresses the above requirement and discusses the cybersecurity rating framework (CSRF) that could establish a framework for rating vehicle cybersecurity by standardizing the measurement criteria, parameter vectors, process, and tools.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Requirements and Specifications of a Digital Thread in Aircraft Data Life Cycle Management

2024-03-05
2024-01-1946
The aircraft lifecycle involves thousands of transactions and an enormous amount of data being exchanged across the stakeholders in the aircraft ecosystem. This data pertains to various aircraft life cycle stages such as design, manufacturing, certification, operations, maintenance, and disposal of the aircraft. All participants in the aerospace ecosystem want to leverage the data to deliver insight and add value to their customers through existing and new services while protecting their own intellectual property. The exchange of data between stakeholders in the ecosystem is involved and growing exponentially. This necessitates the need for standards on data interoperability to support efficient maintenance, logistics, operations, and design improvements for both commercial and military aircraft ecosystems. A digital thread defines an approach and a system which connects the data flows and represents a holistic view of an asset data across its lifecycle.
Technical Paper

Integration and Optimization of Geneva Mechanism in the Car Door Handle

2024-01-16
2024-26-0285
The car door handle is an essential component of any vehicle, as it plays a crucial role in providing access to the cabin and ensuring safety of the passenger. The primary function of the car door handle is to allow entry and exit from the vehicle while preventing unauthorized access. In addition to this, car door handles also play a critical role in ensuring passenger safety by keeping the door closed during accidents or when there is a significant amount of G-force acting on the vehicle. A typical car door handle comprises several components including the structure, cover, bowden lever, bracket, pins and other child parts. The structure provides the ergonomics and rigidity for grabbing the handle, while the cover gives the handle an aesthetic appearance. The Bowden lever facilitates the unlatching of the door and the intermediate parts ensure that the handle operates smoothly.
Technical Paper

The Operation Phase as the Currently Underestimated Phase of the (Safety and Legal) Product Lifecycle of Autonomous Vehicles for SAE L3/L4 – Lessons Learned from Existing European Operations and Development of a Deployment and Surveillance Blueprint

2023-12-29
2023-01-1906
Advanced Autonomous Vehicles (AV) for SAE Level 3 and Level 4 functions will lead to a new understanding of the operation phase in the overall product lifecycle. Regulations such as the EU Implementing Act and the German L4 Act (AFGBV) request a continuous field surveillance, the handling of critical E/E faults and software updates during operation. This is required to enhance the Operational Design Domain (ODD) during operation, offering Functions on Demand (FoD), by increasing software features within these autonomous vehicle systems over the entire digital product lifecycle, and to avoid and reduce downtime by a malfunction of the Autonomous Driving (AD) software stack.
Technical Paper

Access Control Requirements for Autonomous Robotic Fleets

2023-04-11
2023-01-0104
Access control enforces security policies for controlling critical resources. For V2X (Vehicle to Everything) autonomous military vehicle fleets, network middleware systems such as ROS (Robotic Operating System) expose system resources through networked publisher/subscriber and client/server paradigms. Without proper access control, these systems are vulnerable to attacks from compromised network nodes, which may perform data poisoning attacks, flood packets on a network, or attempt to gain lateral control of other resources. Access control for robotic middleware systems has been investigated in both ROS1 and ROS2. Still, these implementations do not have mechanisms for evaluating a policy's consistency and completeness or writing expressive policies for distributed fleets. We explore an RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) mechanism layered onto ROS environments that uses local permission caches with precomputed truth tables for fast policy evaluation.
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