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Technical Paper

Requirements for the automated generation of attack trees to support automotive cybersecurity assurance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0124
Although ISO/SAE 21434 recommends the development of an assurance case for cybersecurity, the precise nature of a cybersecurity case is not explicitly defined within the standard. ...In the case of cybersecurity, this problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of vehicular onboard systems, their inherent obscurity due to their heterogenous architecture, emergent behaviours, and the disparate motivations and resources of potential threat agents.
Technical Paper

Functional verification and validation of secure controller area network (CAN) communication

2022-03-29
2022-01-0110
In agriculture industry, increasing use of Vehicle Internet of Things (IoT), telematics and emerging technologies are resulting in smarter machines with connected solutions. Inter and Intra Communication with vehicle to vehicle and inside vehicle - Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to ECU or ECU to sensor, requirement for flow of data increased in-turn resulting in increased need for secure communication. In this paper, we focus on functional verification and validation of secure Controller Area Network (CAN) for intra vehicular communication to establish confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and freshness of data, supporting safety, advanced automation, protection of sensitive data and IP (Intellectual Property) protection. Network security algorithms and software security processes are the layers supporting to achieve our cause. Test environment setup with secured hardware and simulated models, test scenarios and test data created to achieve our objective.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into a CI Pipeline for Automotive Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0117
With the rapid development of connected and autonomous vehicles, more sophisticated automotive systems running large portions of software and implementing a variety of communication interfaces are being developed. The ever-expanding codebase increases the risk for software vulnerabilities, while at the same time the large number of communication interfaces make the systems more susceptible to be targeted by attackers. As such, it is of utmost importance for automotive organizations to identify potential vulnerabilities early and continuously in the development lifecycle in an automated manner. In this paper, we suggest a practical approach for integrating fuzz testing into a Continuous Integration (CI) pipeline for automotive systems. As a first step, we have performed a Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment (TARA) of a general E/E architecture to identify high-risk interfaces and functions.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation

2021-12-15
EPR2021028
On-road vehicles equipped with driving automation features—where a human might not be needed for operation on-board—are entering the mainstream public space. However, questions like “How safe is safe enough?” and “What to do if the system fails?” persist. This is where remote operation comes in, which is an additional layer to the automated driving system where a human remotely assists the so-called “driverless” vehicle in certain situations. Such remote-operation solutions introduce additional challenges and potential risks as the entire vehicle-network-human now needs to work together safely, effectively, and practically. Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation highlights technical questions (e.g., network latency, bandwidth, cyber security) and human aspects (e.g., workload, attentiveness, situational awareness) of remote operation and introduces evolving solutions.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure

2021-12-15
EPR2021030
Information and communication technology is fundamentally changing the way we live and operate in cities, such as instant access to events, transportation, bookings, payments, and other services. At the same time, three “megatrends” in the automotive industry—self-driving, electrification, and advanced manufacturing technology—are enabling the design of innovative, application-specific vehicles that capitalize on city connectivity. Applications could countless; however, they also need to be safe and securely integrated into a city’s physical and digital infrastructure, and into the overall urban ecosystem. Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure examines the current state of the industry, the developments in automated driving and robotics, and how these new urban, self-driving city applications are different. It also analyzes higher level challenges for urban applications.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Concerning Urban Air Mobility Infrastructure

2021-11-15
EPR2021025
Urban air mobility (UAM) refers to urban transportation systems that move people by air. UAM offers the potential for reducing traffic congestion in cities and providing an integrated approach to urban mobility. With the emergence of electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft, drone technology, and the possibility of automated aircraft, interest in this topic has grown considerably for private sector solution providers—including aerospace and technology companies—as well as urban planners and transportation professionals. Unsettled Issues Concerning Urban Air Mobility Infrastructure discusses the infrastructure requirements to effectively integrate UAM services into the overarching urban transportation system to enable multimodal trips and complete origin to destination travel. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Research Report

Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing

2021-11-15
EPR2021026
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” now provides the ability to have an almost fully digital chain from part design through manufacture and service. This “digital thread” can bring great benefits in improving designs, processes, materials, operations, and the ability to predict failure in a way that maximizes safety and minimizes cost and downtime. Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing discusses what the interplay between AM and a digital thread in the mobility industry would look like, the potential benefits and costs, the hurdles that need to be overcome for the combination to be useful, and how an organization can answer these questions to scope and benefit from the combination. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Technical Paper

Designing a Next Generation Trailer Braking System

2021-10-11
2021-01-1268
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Technical Paper

The Role of Safety Critical Architecture in an Evolving Ecosystem

2021-06-16
2021-01-1000
There are many industries where safety is a major, if not the primary, concern, such as aviation and nuclear power. These industries rely on many layers of standards for designing, developing, and deploying safety critical systems and technologies. While unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations and UAS Traffic Management (UTM) are often touted as “safety critical”, the systems and technologies are not being held to the same standards as traditional aviation, with its long pedigree of safety. There are multiple reasons for this dichotomy. One such reason is that design assurance standards, such as DO-178 for software, do not fit with modern technology such as web-based communication and machine learning. At the architecture level, the federated approach to UTM has led to a void in the Systems Engineering process. Nobody “owns” the entire system and therefore nobody owns the Systems Engineering process where many safety related design decisions are traditionally made.
Technical Paper

It Takes a Village: A Case Study of Business Development and Innovation in a UAS/AUS Ecosystem to Address Critical Industry Challenges

2021-06-16
2021-01-1002
Entrepreneurial innovation that spurs economic development requires a collaborative cluster of cooperative effort, across a diverse ecosystem of partners. Literature provides resounding evidence to support the notion that an innovative, entrepreneurial ecosystem is critical to both successful economic development and industry sector growth. The UAS/AUS industry sector is a fast-growing sector across the United States, with regional leadership demonstrated in North Dakota, California, North Carolina, New York, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. This case study is focused on investigating how the North Dakota autonomous systems ecosystem continues to evolves and develop mechanisms and partnerships to address industry pain points, facilitate cutting edge research, ensure high-quality UAS/AUS testing, and support an adaptive business development pipeline across the entrepreneurial life cycle.
Technical Paper

Safe Operations at Roadway Junctions - Design Principles from Automated Guideway Transit

2021-06-16
2021-01-1004
This paper describes a system-level view of a fully automated transit system comprising a fleet of automated vehicles (AVs) in driverless operation, each with an SAE level 4 Automated Driving System, along with its related safety infrastructure and other system equipment. This AV system-level control is compared to the automatic train control system used in automated guideway transit technology, particularly that of communications-based train control (CBTC). Drawing from the safety principles, analysis methods, and risk assessments of CBTC systems, comparable functional subsystem definitions are proposed for AV fleets in driverless operation. With the prospect of multiple AV fleets operating within a single automated mobility district, the criticality of protecting roadway junctions requires an approach like that of automated fixed-guideway transit systems, in which a guideway switch zone “interlocking” at each junction location deconflicts railway traffic, affirming safe passage.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Streamlined Process for Cloud Based Diagnostics Using Amazon Web Services

2021-04-06
2021-01-0159
In the age of 5G, the cloud constitutes a massive computational resource. Such capability is greatly underutilized, especially for the purpose of vehicle diagnostics and prognostics. Diagnostics and prognostics run mostly in the limited and cost sensitive electronic module of the vehicle. Utilizing vehicle connectivity, along with the massive capability of the cloud would allow the deployment of smarter algorithms that provide improved vehicle performance and operation management. In this paper, a streamlined process to develop and deploy off-board diagnostics is presented. The process included developing multiphysics digital twins and running the diagnostics off-board. It was demonstrated on a fleet of virtual Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). The Digital Twin replica was created using Simulink® and Simscape®. The microcontroller used to demonstrate the diagnostic is a Raspberry Pi hardware running in real time.
Technical Paper

Vehicular Visual Sensor Blinding Detection by Integrating Variational Autoencoders with SVM

2021-04-06
2021-01-0144
The advancements of autonomous vehicles or advanced driver assistance systems in terms of safety, driving experience, and comfort against manual driving results in extensive adoption of them across the modern automotive sector. The autonomous vehicles are equipped with numerous sensing and actuating components both inside as well as outside the vehicles to perceive the environment, perform path planning, and intelligently control the autonomous vehicles. The perception mechanism includes fused information of multiple sensors such as camera, RADAR, and LiDAR to effectively understand all the dynamic driving environments. Some of the intentional and unintentional mechanisms such as cyber-attacks and natural variations of the environment, etc., across the sensor's external interface with the environment cause the degradation of the perception mechanism.
Technical Paper

Building Responsibility in AI: Transparent AI for Highly Automated Vehicle Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0195
Replacing a human driver is an extraordinarily complex task. While machine learning (ML) and its’ subset, deep learning (DL) are fueling breakthroughs in everything from consumer mobile applications to image and gesture recognition, significant challenges remain. The majority of artificial intelligence (AI) learning applications, particularly with respect to Highly Automated Vehicles (HAVs) and their ecosystem have remained opaque - genuine “black boxes.” Data is loaded into one side of the ML system and results come out the other, however, there is little to no understanding at how the decision was arrived at. To make these systems accurate, these AI systems require lots of data to crunch and the sheer computational complexity of building these DL based AI models also slows down the progress in accuracy and the practicality of deploying DL at scale.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Real Time Vulnerability Fixes Verification Mechanism for Automotive Firmware/Software

2021-04-06
2021-01-0183
Software vulnerability management is one of the most critical and crucial security techniques, which analyzes the automotive software/firmware across the digital cockpit, ADAS, V2X, etc. domains for vulnerabilities, and provides security patches for the concerned Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The process of automotive SW/FW vulnerability management system between the OEMs and vendors happen through a channel of fixing a certain number of vulnerabilities by 1st tier supplier which needs to be verified in front of OEMs for the fixed number and type of patches in there deliverable SW/FW. The gap of verification between for the fixed patches between the OEMs and 1st tier supplier requires a reliable human independent intelligent technique to have a trustworthiness of verification.
Technical Paper

Adopting Aviation Safety Knowledge into the Discussions of Safe Implementation of Connected and Autonomous Road Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0074
The development of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) is progressing fast. Yet, safety and standardization-related discussions are limited due to the recent nature of the sector. Despite the effort that is initiated to kick-start the study, awareness among practitioners is still low. Hence, further effort is required to stimulate this discussion. Among the available works on CAV safety, some of them take inspiration from the aviation sector that has strict safety regulations. The underlying reason is the experience that has been gained over the decades. However, the literature still lacks a thorough association between automation in aviation and the CAV from the safety perspective. As such, this paper motivates the adoption of safe-automation knowledge from aviation to facilitate safer CAV systems.
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