The international standards D-326A (U.S.) and ED-202A (Europe) titled "Airworthiness Security Process Specification" are the cornerstones of the "DO-326/ED-202 Set" and they are the only Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) by FAA & EASA for aviation cyber-security airworthiness certification, as of 2019. The "DO-326/ED-202 Set" also includes companion documents DO-356A/ED-203A: "Airworthiness Security Methods and Considerations" & DO-355/ED-204: "Information Security Guidance for Continuing Airworthiness" (U.S. & Europe) and ED-201: "Aeronautical Information System Security (AISS) Framework Guidance" & ED-205: "Process Standard for Security Certification / Declaration of Air Traffic Management / Air Navigation Services (ATM/ANS) Ground Systems“ (Europe only).
The "Dreamliner," the first true "flying data center," could no longer be certified for airworthiness ignoring "sabotage," like the classic safety regulation for commercial passenger aircraft – as its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set "Special Conditions" for cyber-security. In the 15 years that followed, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-making, regulation-making, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cyber-security superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that followed, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-making, regulation-making, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cyber-security superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, U.S. and European Union (EU) legislation, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulation and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are about to become the new standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices as soon as 2020, and in fact – some of them are already in effect.
This document applies to the development of Plans for integrating and managing COTS assemblies in electronic equipment and Systems for the commercial, military, and space markets; as well as other ADHP markets that wish to use this document. For purposes of this document, COTS assemblies are viewed as electronic assemblies such as printed wiring assemblies, relays, disk drives, LCD matrices, VME circuit cards, servers, printers, laptop computers, etc. There are many ways to categorize COTS assemblies1, including the following spectrum: At one end of the spectrum are COTS assemblies whose design, internal parts2, materials, configuration control, traceability, reliability, and qualification methods are at least partially controlled, or influenced, by ADHP customers (either individually or collectively). An example at this end of the spectrum is a VME circuit card assembly.
This document is the Architecture Description (AD) for the SAE Unmanned Systems (UxS) Control Segment (UCS) Architecture Library Revision A or, simply, the UCS Architecture. The architecture is expressed by a library of SAE publications as referenced herein. The other publications in the UCS Architecture Library Revision A are: AS6513A, AS6518A, AS6522A, and AS6969A.
This specification establishes process controls for the repeatable production of aerospace parts by Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion (EB-PBF). It is intended to be used for aerospace parts manufactured using additive manufacturing (AM) metal alloys, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Contemporary air traffic management (ATM) challenges are both (1) acute and (2) growing at rates far outpacing established ways for absorbing technological innovation. Lack of timely response will guarantee failure to meet demands. Immediately that creates a necessity to identify means of coping and judging new technologies based on possible speed of adoption. Paralleling the challenges are developments in capability, both recent and decades old. Some steps (e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS) backup) are well known and, in fact, should have progressed further long ago. Others (e.g., sharing raw measurements instead of position fixes) are equally well known and, if followed by further flight tests initiated (and successful) years ago, would have produced a wealth of in-flight experience by now if development had continued. Other possibilities (e.g., automated pilot override) are much less common and are considered largely experimental.
Game-changing opportunities abound for the application of vehicle health management (VHM) across multiple transportation-related sectors, but key unresolved issues continue to impede progress. VHM technology is based upon the broader field of advanced analytics. Much of traditional analytics efforts to date have been largely descriptive in nature and offer somewhat limited value for large-scale enterprises. Analytics technology becomes increasingly valuable when it offers predictive results or, even better, prescriptive results, which can be used to identify specific courses of action. It is this focus on action which takes analytics to a higher level of impact, and which imbues it with the potential to materially impact the success of the enterprise. Artificial intelligence (AI), specifically machine learning technology, shows future promise in the VHM space, but it is not currently adequate by itself for high-accuracy analytics.
The avionics industry is moving towards the use of multicore systems to meet the demands of modern avionics applications. In multicore systems, interference can affect execution timing behavior, including worst case execution time (WCET), as identified in the FAA CAST-32A position paper. Examining and verifying the effects of interference is critical in the production of safety-critical avionics software for multicore architectures. Multicore processor hardware along with aerospace RTOS providers increasingly offers robust partitioning technologies to help developers mitigate the effects of interference. These technologies enable the partitioning of cores for different applications at different criticalities and make it possible to run multiple applications on one specific core. When incorporated into system-design considerations, these partitioning mechanisms can be used to reduce the effects of interference on software performance.
Tweaking, tuning, and tinkering The importance of flight testing in design decisions. Engine switch propels UW - Platteville snowmobile team to new heights Along with a new engine, the team made other changes that helped it win first place in the Spark-Ignition Class at the 2019 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge. Another year, another successful Cornell Baja SAE team Cornell University was among only five teams to finish in the top 10 in each of 2019’s three Baja SAE competitions.