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Research Report

Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing

2021-11-15
EPR2021026
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” now provides the ability to have an almost fully digital chain from part design through manufacture and service. This “digital thread” can bring great benefits in improving designs, processes, materials, operations, and the ability to predict failure in a way that maximizes safety and minimizes cost and downtime. Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing discusses what the interplay between AM and a digital thread in the mobility industry would look like, the potential benefits and costs, the hurdles that need to be overcome for the combination to be useful, and how an organization can answer these questions to scope and benefit from the combination. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Technical Paper

Designing a Next Generation Trailer Braking System

2021-10-11
2021-01-1268
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Technical Paper

Towards Establishing Continuous-X Pipeline Using Modular Software-in-the-Loop Test Environments

2021-09-22
2021-26-0412
Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) test environments are the ideal virtual platforms for enabling continuous-development, -integration, -testing -delivery or -deployment commonly referred as Continuous-X (CX) of the complex functionalities in the current automotive industry. This trend especially is contributed by several factors such as the industry wide standardization of the model exchange formats, interfaces as well as architecture definitions. The approach of frontloading software testing with SiL test environments is predominantly advocated as well as already adopted by various Automotive OEMs, thereby the demand for innovating applicable methods is increasing. However, prominent usage of the existing monolithic architecture for interaction of various elements in the SiL environment, without regarding the separation between functional and non-functional test scope, is reducing the usability and thus limiting significantly the cost saving potential of CX with SiL.
Technical Paper

Connected Vehicles - A Testing Approach and Methodology

2021-09-22
2021-26-0450
With the introduction of Connected Vehicles, it is possible to extend the limited horizon of vehicles on the road by collective perceptions, where vehicles periodically share their information with other vehicles and servers using cloud. Nevertheless, by the time the connected vehicle spread expands, it is critical to understand the validation techniques which can be used to ensure a flawless transfer of data and connectivity. Connected vehicles are mainly characterized by the smartphone application which is provided to the end customers to access the connectivity features in the vehicle. The end result which is delivered to the customer is through the integrated telematics unit in the vehicle which communicates through a communication layer with the cloud platform. The cloud server in turn interacts with the final application layer of the mobile application given to the customer.
Technical Paper

Improved Run Time Error Analysis Using Formal Methods for Automotive Software - Improvement of Quality, Cost Effectiveness and Efforts to Proactive Defects Check

2021-09-22
2021-26-0459
Quality is what determines success or failure. If products are not error-free, reliable and robust, customers will be put off. Criticism is inevitable. Bosch is focusing on this theme and taking appropriate action to improve the quality of automotive software. Runtime errors most often refer to issues that appear during the execution of a program like buffer overflow issues and pointer access out of bounds. They are important to detect as they may cause critical safety, security or business operation concerns. They can potentially cause the critical systems of high-integrity applications to fail, leading to disastrous results and they have been blamed as the root cause of system failure in high-profile examples in automotive software. This has resulted in identifying run-time error detection as critical field of interest where safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements by all contemporary safety standards where no run-time errors must occur.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Oriented Distributed Test Strategy for FOTA/SOTA Enabled Edge Device

2021-09-22
2021-26-0476
In order to enhance customer experience [5] and to reduce time to market, the manufacturers are constantly in need of being able to update software/firmware of the Electronic Control units (ECU) when the vehicle is in field operations. The updates could be a bug fix or a new feature release. Until the recent years, the updation of software/firmware used to be done using a physical hardwired connection to the Vehicle in a workshop. However, with the element of connectivity being added to the vehicle, the updation of software can be done remotely and wirelessly over the air using a feature called Flash over the air (FOTA) [2] and Software over the air (SOTA) [2]. In order to safeguard the telematics [3] ECU from tampering or hacking, the manufacturers are doing away with the ports on the underlying hardware through which manual flashing used to be done. This means that, the only option available to flash or update the ECU is using FOTA/SOTA.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Technical Paper

The Role of Safety Critical Architecture in an Evolving Ecosystem

2021-06-16
2021-01-1000
There are many industries where safety is a major, if not the primary, concern, such as aviation and nuclear power. These industries rely on many layers of standards for designing, developing, and deploying safety critical systems and technologies. While unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations and UAS Traffic Management (UTM) are often touted as “safety critical”, the systems and technologies are not being held to the same standards as traditional aviation, with its long pedigree of safety. There are multiple reasons for this dichotomy. One such reason is that design assurance standards, such as DO-178 for software, do not fit with modern technology such as web-based communication and machine learning. At the architecture level, the federated approach to UTM has led to a void in the Systems Engineering process. Nobody “owns” the entire system and therefore nobody owns the Systems Engineering process where many safety related design decisions are traditionally made.
Technical Paper

Safe Operations at Roadway Junctions - Design Principles from Automated Guideway Transit

2021-06-16
2021-01-1004
This paper describes a system-level view of a fully automated transit system comprising a fleet of automated vehicles (AVs) in driverless operation, each with an SAE level 4 Automated Driving System, along with its related safety infrastructure and other system equipment. This AV system-level control is compared to the automatic train control system used in automated guideway transit technology, particularly that of communications-based train control (CBTC). Drawing from the safety principles, analysis methods, and risk assessments of CBTC systems, comparable functional subsystem definitions are proposed for AV fleets in driverless operation. With the prospect of multiple AV fleets operating within a single automated mobility district, the criticality of protecting roadway junctions requires an approach like that of automated fixed-guideway transit systems, in which a guideway switch zone “interlocking” at each junction location deconflicts railway traffic, affirming safe passage.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Streamlined Process for Cloud Based Diagnostics Using Amazon Web Services

2021-04-06
2021-01-0159
In the age of 5G, the cloud constitutes a massive computational resource. Such capability is greatly underutilized, especially for the purpose of vehicle diagnostics and prognostics. Diagnostics and prognostics run mostly in the limited and cost sensitive electronic module of the vehicle. Utilizing vehicle connectivity, along with the massive capability of the cloud would allow the deployment of smarter algorithms that provide improved vehicle performance and operation management. In this paper, a streamlined process to develop and deploy off-board diagnostics is presented. The process included developing multiphysics digital twins and running the diagnostics off-board. It was demonstrated on a fleet of virtual Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). The Digital Twin replica was created using Simulink® and Simscape®. The microcontroller used to demonstrate the diagnostic is a Raspberry Pi hardware running in real time.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into the Cybersecurity Validation Strategy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0139
Therefore, modern cybersecurity validation is highly stressed for finding security vulnerabilities and robustness issues early and systematically at every stage of the product development process. ...The integration of a sophisticated fuzz testing program within the overall cybersecurity validation strategy allows for accommodating towards these challenging demands. In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing. ...In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Vehicular Visual Sensor Blinding Detection by Integrating Variational Autoencoders with SVM

2021-04-06
2021-01-0144
The advancements of autonomous vehicles or advanced driver assistance systems in terms of safety, driving experience, and comfort against manual driving results in extensive adoption of them across the modern automotive sector. The autonomous vehicles are equipped with numerous sensing and actuating components both inside as well as outside the vehicles to perceive the environment, perform path planning, and intelligently control the autonomous vehicles. The perception mechanism includes fused information of multiple sensors such as camera, RADAR, and LiDAR to effectively understand all the dynamic driving environments. Some of the intentional and unintentional mechanisms such as cyber-attacks and natural variations of the environment, etc., across the sensor's external interface with the environment cause the degradation of the perception mechanism.
Technical Paper

Putting Safety of Intended Functionality SOTIF into Practice

2021-04-06
2021-01-0196
The increase of autonomy demand in the automotive industry made the usage of AI models inevitable. However, such models introduce a variety of threats to automobile safety and security. ISO/PAS 21448 SOTIF is a safety standard that is designed to deal with risks due to non-electrical and non-electronic failures. In this paper we put SOTIF into practice. In our work we introduce a conceivable safety critical scenario that targets the lane keep assist function. We use the suggested modelling techniques in the SOTIF standard to analyze the scenario and extract the trigger event. In result, we propose a contextual based predictive ML model to monitor the intervention between the driver and lane keep assist system. Our approach followed the SOTIF verification and validation guidelines. Empirically, we use a real safety critical scenario dataset as well as an augmented dataset.
Technical Paper

Building Responsibility in AI: Transparent AI for Highly Automated Vehicle Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0195
Replacing a human driver is an extraordinarily complex task. While machine learning (ML) and its’ subset, deep learning (DL) are fueling breakthroughs in everything from consumer mobile applications to image and gesture recognition, significant challenges remain. The majority of artificial intelligence (AI) learning applications, particularly with respect to Highly Automated Vehicles (HAVs) and their ecosystem have remained opaque - genuine “black boxes.” Data is loaded into one side of the ML system and results come out the other, however, there is little to no understanding at how the decision was arrived at. To make these systems accurate, these AI systems require lots of data to crunch and the sheer computational complexity of building these DL based AI models also slows down the progress in accuracy and the practicality of deploying DL at scale.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Real Time Vulnerability Fixes Verification Mechanism for Automotive Firmware/Software

2021-04-06
2021-01-0183
Software vulnerability management is one of the most critical and crucial security techniques, which analyzes the automotive software/firmware across the digital cockpit, ADAS, V2X, etc. domains for vulnerabilities, and provides security patches for the concerned Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The process of automotive SW/FW vulnerability management system between the OEMs and vendors happen through a channel of fixing a certain number of vulnerabilities by 1st tier supplier which needs to be verified in front of OEMs for the fixed number and type of patches in there deliverable SW/FW. The gap of verification between for the fixed patches between the OEMs and 1st tier supplier requires a reliable human independent intelligent technique to have a trustworthiness of verification.
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