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Training / Education

Introduction to Highly Automated Vehicles

2022-04-04
Every year, the U.S. on average, experiences more than 34,000 traffic deaths and over 5 million vehicle crashes. While the trend in traffic deaths has been generally downward for the past decade, most of this reduction has been the result of optimizing passive occupant crash protection systems such as seatbelts and airbags. Highly automated vehicle's (HAV's) offer the potential to significantly reduce vehicle crashes by perceiving a dangerous situation before the crash has occurred and supporting the human driver with proactive warnings and in some cases active interventions to avoid or mitigate the crash.
Technical Paper

Future of Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors

2022-03-29
2022-01-0122
In this paper, we look at the upcoming trends in EE architectures, and investigate the underlying cyber-security threats and corresponding security requirements that lead to potential requirements for an “Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors” (AEHTA).
Technical Paper

Requirements for the automated generation of attack trees to support automotive cybersecurity assurance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0124
Although ISO/SAE 21434 recommends the development of an assurance case for cybersecurity, the precise nature of a cybersecurity case is not explicitly defined within the standard. ...In the case of cybersecurity, this problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of vehicular onboard systems, their inherent obscurity due to their heterogenous architecture, emergent behaviours, and the disparate motivations and resources of potential threat agents.
Technical Paper

Functional verification and validation of secure controller area network (CAN) communication

2022-03-29
2022-01-0110
In agriculture industry, increasing use of Vehicle Internet of Things (IoT), telematics and emerging technologies are resulting in smarter machines with connected solutions. Inter and Intra Communication with vehicle to vehicle and inside vehicle - Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to ECU or ECU to sensor, requirement for flow of data increased in-turn resulting in increased need for secure communication. In this paper, we focus on functional verification and validation of secure Controller Area Network (CAN) for intra vehicular communication to establish confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and freshness of data, supporting safety, advanced automation, protection of sensitive data and IP (Intellectual Property) protection. Network security algorithms and software security processes are the layers supporting to achieve our cause. Test environment setup with secured hardware and simulated models, test scenarios and test data created to achieve our objective.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into a CI Pipeline for Automotive Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0117
With the rapid development of connected and autonomous vehicles, more sophisticated automotive systems running large portions of software and implementing a variety of communication interfaces are being developed. The ever-expanding codebase increases the risk for software vulnerabilities, while at the same time the large number of communication interfaces make the systems more susceptible to be targeted by attackers. As such, it is of utmost importance for automotive organizations to identify potential vulnerabilities early and continuously in the development lifecycle in an automated manner. In this paper, we suggest a practical approach for integrating fuzz testing into a Continuous Integration (CI) pipeline for automotive systems. As a first step, we have performed a Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment (TARA) of a general E/E architecture to identify high-risk interfaces and functions.
Technical Paper

UDS Security Access for highly-constrained ECUs

2022-03-29
2022-01-0132
Legacy electronic control units are, nowadays, required to implement cybersecurity measures, but they often do not have all the facilities that are necessary to realise industry-standard cybersecurity controls. ...Legacy electronic control units are, nowadays, required to implement cybersecurity measures, but they often do not have all the facilities that are necessary to realise industry-standard cybersecurity controls. Such systems must still be protected with a sufficient level of rigor against attackers who wish to modify their operation or extract confidential information from them. ...While the classic UDS service $27 (Security Access) has a reputation for poor cybersecurity, there is nothing inherent in the way it operates which prevents a secure access-control from being implemented.
Student

AutoDrive Challenge

2022-01-23
SAE International and General Motors have partnered to headline sponsor AutoDrive Challenge™, the latest of SAE International’s Collegiate Design Series.
Event

Attend - Innovations in Mobility: Aerospace Digital Summit

2022-01-23
Innovations in Mobility: Aerospace Digital Summitaerospace mobility leaders convene leverage cutting-edge technology, design, develop safety measures, integrate current regulations, suggest future policies, expand markets, diversify revenue streams.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure

2021-12-15
EPR2021030
Information and communication technology is fundamentally changing the way we live and operate in cities, such as instant access to events, transportation, bookings, payments, and other services. At the same time, three “megatrends” in the automotive industry—self-driving, electrification, and advanced manufacturing technology—are enabling the design of innovative, application-specific vehicles that capitalize on city connectivity. Applications could countless; however, they also need to be safe and securely integrated into a city’s physical and digital infrastructure, and into the overall urban ecosystem. Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure examines the current state of the industry, the developments in automated driving and robotics, and how these new urban, self-driving city applications are different. It also analyzes higher level challenges for urban applications.
Technical Paper

Designing a Next Generation Trailer Braking System

2021-10-11
2021-01-1268
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Oriented Distributed Test Strategy for FOTA/SOTA Enabled Edge Device

2021-09-22
2021-26-0476
In order to enhance customer experience [5] and to reduce time to market, the manufacturers are constantly in need of being able to update software/firmware of the Electronic Control units (ECU) when the vehicle is in field operations. The updates could be a bug fix or a new feature release. Until the recent years, the updation of software/firmware used to be done using a physical hardwired connection to the Vehicle in a workshop. However, with the element of connectivity being added to the vehicle, the updation of software can be done remotely and wirelessly over the air using a feature called Flash over the air (FOTA) [2] and Software over the air (SOTA) [2]. In order to safeguard the telematics [3] ECU from tampering or hacking, the manufacturers are doing away with the ports on the underlying hardware through which manual flashing used to be done. This means that, the only option available to flash or update the ECU is using FOTA/SOTA.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2021

2021-09-02
Editorial Fool Self-Driving II The Navigator What will result from NHTSA's Tesla Autopilot investigation? Data Drives Driverless Truck Launch Smart diagnostics and advanced validation help support the reliability metrics required to gain confidence that autonomous trucks are ready for the road. Peering into the Distance New sensors of all types look out longer distances - and provide higher resolutions - for engineers pushing ADAS capabilities and higher-level vehicle automation. Ford Drives into SAE Level 2 Driver monitoring was an essential component to engineering the new "hands-free" BlueCruise/Active Glide enhanced ADAS system. A Chore No More? The Detroit Smart Parking Lab opens to develop and test emerging parking technology in real-world settings. Share and Share Alike The concepts of rideshare and urban mobility continue to evolve as new projects test what's possible.
Journal Article

Real-Time Network Defense of SAE J1939 Address Claim Attacks

2021-08-30
Abstract Heavy vehicles are essential for the modern economy, delivering critical food, supplies, and freight throughout the world. Connected heavy vehicles are also driven by embedded computers that utilize internal communication using common standards. However, some implementations of the standards leave an opening for a malicious actor to abuse the system. One such abuse case is a cyber-attack known as the “Address Claim Attack.” Proposed in 2018, this attack uses a single network message to disable all communication to and from a target electronic control unit, which may have a detrimental effect on operating the vehicle. This article demonstrates the viability of the attack and then describes the implementation of a solution to prevent this attack in real time without requiring any intervention from the manufacturer of the target devices. The defense technique uses a bit-banged Controller Area Network (CAN) filter to detect the attack.
Standard

CAN FD Data Link Layer

2021-07-16
CURRENT
J1939-22_202107
The flexible data rate capability in CAN (commonly called CAN FD) is implemented as a transport layer in order to allow for functional safety, cybersecurity, extended transport capability, and backward compatibility with SAE J1939DA.
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2021

2021-07-01
Editorial Follow the money The Navigator C-V2X is finally gaining momentum in the U.S. Making the Strategic Move Into AV Testing Having built its global engineering reputation in the combustion-engine era, FEV makes a critical leap into automated-vehicle testing. Sony Jumps Into AV Sensors, Software The consumer-electronics giant leverages its innovative technologies for ADAS prototypes and partners with Hungary-based AImotive for automated-driving software. Mitigating Radar-to-Radar Interference An effective radar interference mitigation strategy should have the right balance between complexity and capability for dealing with the interferers. Amending the Automated-driving 'Constitution' SAE International's J3016 standard has been comprehensively revised with new distinctions and definitions. The Committee chairperson, Barbara Wendling, addresses the fine points behind the industry-defining - and perpetually controversial - classification for automated-driving capability.
Technical Paper

It Takes a Village: A Case Study of Business Development and Innovation in a UAS/AUS Ecosystem to Address Critical Industry Challenges

2021-06-16
2021-01-1002
Entrepreneurial innovation that spurs economic development requires a collaborative cluster of cooperative effort, across a diverse ecosystem of partners. Literature provides resounding evidence to support the notion that an innovative, entrepreneurial ecosystem is critical to both successful economic development and industry sector growth. The UAS/AUS industry sector is a fast-growing sector across the United States, with regional leadership demonstrated in North Dakota, California, North Carolina, New York, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. This case study is focused on investigating how the North Dakota autonomous systems ecosystem continues to evolves and develop mechanisms and partnerships to address industry pain points, facilitate cutting edge research, ensure high-quality UAS/AUS testing, and support an adaptive business development pipeline across the entrepreneurial life cycle.
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