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Training / Education

Introduction to Highly Automated Vehicles

2022-04-04
Every year, the U.S. on average, experiences more than 34,000 traffic deaths and over 5 million vehicle crashes. While the trend in traffic deaths has been generally downward for the past decade, most of this reduction has been the result of optimizing passive occupant crash protection systems such as seatbelts and airbags. Highly automated vehicle's (HAV's) offer the potential to significantly reduce vehicle crashes by perceiving a dangerous situation before the crash has occurred and supporting the human driver with proactive warnings and in some cases active interventions to avoid or mitigate the crash.
Training / Education

DO-326A and ED-202A An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials

2021-12-06
The international standards D-326A (U.S.) and ED-202A (Europe) titled "Airworthiness Security Process Specification" are the cornerstones of the "DO-326/ED-202 Set" and they are the only Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) by FAA & EASA for aviation cyber-security airworthiness certification, as of 2019. The "DO-326/ED-202 Set" also includes companion documents DO-356A/ED-203A: "Airworthiness Security Methods and Considerations" & DO-355/ED-204: "Information Security Guidance for Continuing Airworthiness" (U.S. & Europe) and ED-201: "Aeronautical Information System Security (AISS) Framework Guidance" & ED-205: "Process Standard for Security Certification / Declaration of Air Traffic Management / Air Navigation Services (ATM/ANS) Ground Systems“ (Europe only).
Training / Education

Introduction to Automated Vehicle Safety Multi-Agent, Functional, SOTIF, and Cybersecurity

2021-11-10
You’ll learn the main attributes of safety as applied to automated vehicles, including the four types of safety: Functional Safety, Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF),  Multi-agent safety, and safety involved in cybersecurity attacks. The discussion will enable participants to conceive of the various applicable design aspects of safety, clarify the role of SOTIF, multi-agent safety, and cybersecurity safety and address the development of multi-agent safety using a probabilistic and stochastic framework.
Event

Attend - Innovations in Mobility: Aerospace Digital Summit

2021-10-18
Innovations in Mobility: Aerospace Digital Summitaerospace mobility leaders convene leverage cutting-edge technology, design, develop safety measures, integrate current regulations, suggest future policies, expand markets, diversify revenue streams.
Event

Program - Government/Industry Meeting

2021-10-18
The Government/Industry Meeting technical program is designed to provide an open forum to discuss the critical impacts that legislation has on vehicle design from R&D to customer acceptance.
Technical Paper

Improved Run Time Error Analysis Using Formal Methods for Automotive Software - Improvement of Quality, Cost Effectiveness and Efforts to Proactive Defects Check

2021-09-22
2021-26-0459
Quality is what determines success or failure. If products are not error-free, reliable and robust, customers will be put off. Criticism is inevitable. Bosch is focusing on this theme and taking appropriate action to improve the quality of automotive software. Runtime errors most often refer to issues that appear during the execution of a program like buffer overflow issues and pointer access out of bounds. They are important to detect as they may cause critical safety, security or business operation concerns. They can potentially cause the critical systems of high-integrity applications to fail, leading to disastrous results and they have been blamed as the root cause of system failure in high-profile examples in automotive software. This has resulted in identifying run-time error detection as critical field of interest where safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements by all contemporary safety standards where no run-time errors must occur.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation

2021-09-13
EPR2021020
Their associated information technology and cyber physical systems—along with an exponentially resultant number of interconnections—present a massive cybersecurity challenge. Unlike the physical security challenge, which was treated in earnest throughout the last decades, cyber-attacks on airports keep coming, but most airport lack essential means to confront such cyber-attacks. ...These missing means are not technical tools, but rather holistic regulatory directives, technical and process standards, guides, and best practices for airports cybersecurity—even airport cybersecurity concepts and basic definitions are missing in certain cases. Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation offers a deeper analysis of these issues and their causes, focusing on the unique characteristics of airports in general, specific cybersecurity challenges, missing definitions, and conceptual infrastructure for the standardization and regulation of airports cybersecurity. ...Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation offers a deeper analysis of these issues and their causes, focusing on the unique characteristics of airports in general, specific cybersecurity challenges, missing definitions, and conceptual infrastructure for the standardization and regulation of airports cybersecurity.
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Cooperative Driving Automation for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2021-07-16
CURRENT
J3216_202107
This document describes machine-to-machine (M2M) communication to enable cooperation between two or more participating entities or communication devices possessed or controlled by those entities. The cooperation supports or enables performance of the dynamic driving task (DDT) for a subject vehicle with driving automation feature(s) engaged. Other participants may include other vehicles with driving automation feature(s) engaged, shared road users (e.g., drivers of manually operated vehicles or pedestrians or cyclists carrying personal devices), or road operators (e.g., those who maintain or operate traffic signals or workzones). Cooperative driving automation (CDA) aims to improve the safety and flow of traffic and/or facilitate road operations by supporting the movement of multiple vehicles in proximity to one another. This is accomplished, for example, by sharing information that can be used to influence (directly or indirectly) DDT performance by one or more nearby road users.
Technical Paper

The Role of Safety Critical Architecture in an Evolving Ecosystem

2021-06-16
2021-01-1000
There are many industries where safety is a major, if not the primary, concern, such as aviation and nuclear power. These industries rely on many layers of standards for designing, developing, and deploying safety critical systems and technologies. While unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations and UAS Traffic Management (UTM) are often touted as “safety critical”, the systems and technologies are not being held to the same standards as traditional aviation, with its long pedigree of safety. There are multiple reasons for this dichotomy. One such reason is that design assurance standards, such as DO-178 for software, do not fit with modern technology such as web-based communication and machine learning. At the architecture level, the federated approach to UTM has led to a void in the Systems Engineering process. Nobody “owns” the entire system and therefore nobody owns the Systems Engineering process where many safety related design decisions are traditionally made.
Technical Paper

Safe Operations at Roadway Junctions - Design Principles from Automated Guideway Transit

2021-06-16
2021-01-1004
This paper describes a system-level view of a fully automated transit system comprising a fleet of automated vehicles (AVs) in driverless operation, each with an SAE level 4 Automated Driving System, along with its related safety infrastructure and other system equipment. This AV system-level control is compared to the automatic train control system used in automated guideway transit technology, particularly that of communications-based train control (CBTC). Drawing from the safety principles, analysis methods, and risk assessments of CBTC systems, comparable functional subsystem definitions are proposed for AV fleets in driverless operation. With the prospect of multiple AV fleets operating within a single automated mobility district, the criticality of protecting roadway junctions requires an approach like that of automated fixed-guideway transit systems, in which a guideway switch zone “interlocking” at each junction location deconflicts railway traffic, affirming safe passage.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Risk Management Approach to Information Security in Intelligent Transport Systems

2021-05-05
Abstract Connected vehicles and intelligent transportation systems are currently evolving into highly interconnected digital environments. Due to the interconnectivity of different systems and complex communication flows, a joint risk analysis for combining safety and security from a system perspective does not yet exist. We introduce a novel method for joint risk assessment in the automotive sector as a combination of the Diamond Model, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR). These methods have been sequentially composed, which results in a comprehensive risk management approach to information security in an intelligent transport system (ITS). The Diamond Model serves to identify and structurally describe threats and scenarios, the widely accepted FMEA provides threat analysis by identifying possible error combinations, and FAIR provides a quantitative estimation of probabilities for the frequency and magnitude of risk events.
Technical Paper

Streamlined Process for Cloud Based Diagnostics Using Amazon Web Services

2021-04-06
2021-01-0159
In the age of 5G, the cloud constitutes a massive computational resource. Such capability is greatly underutilized, especially for the purpose of vehicle diagnostics and prognostics. Diagnostics and prognostics run mostly in the limited and cost sensitive electronic module of the vehicle. Utilizing vehicle connectivity, along with the massive capability of the cloud would allow the deployment of smarter algorithms that provide improved vehicle performance and operation management. In this paper, a streamlined process to develop and deploy off-board diagnostics is presented. The process included developing multiphysics digital twins and running the diagnostics off-board. It was demonstrated on a fleet of virtual Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). The Digital Twin replica was created using Simulink® and Simscape®. The microcontroller used to demonstrate the diagnostic is a Raspberry Pi hardware running in real time.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into the Cybersecurity Validation Strategy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0139
Therefore, modern cybersecurity validation is highly stressed for finding security vulnerabilities and robustness issues early and systematically at every stage of the product development process. ...The integration of a sophisticated fuzz testing program within the overall cybersecurity validation strategy allows for accommodating towards these challenging demands. In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing. ...In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing.
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