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Technical Paper

Strategy to adopt ISO/SAE 21434 Cyber security assurance level in the organization

2022-03-29
2022-01-0121
The study adopts an RVC (Rear-View Camera) system and performs a threat modeling to describe the details of the proposed process and helps cybersecurity experts, organizations to implement a structured process of CAL in their existing cybersecurity management system. Keywords: Cybersecurity, CAL, ISO21434, threat scenario, risk management, secure development lifecycle. ...This standard has introduced a new classification scheme, cybersecurity assurance level (CAL), that helps in validating the process rigor needed for mitigating different threat scenarios. ...CAL values can be determined at the earlier stages of the SDLC (cybersecurity concept phase) through the knowledge of attack vectors and attack severity specific to a system.
Technical Paper

Future of Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors

2022-03-29
2022-01-0122
In this paper, we look at the upcoming trends in EE architectures, and investigate the underlying cyber-security threats and corresponding security requirements that lead to potential requirements for an “Automotive Embedded Hardware Trust Anchors” (AEHTA).
Training / Education

DO-326A and ED-202A An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials

2022-03-07
The international standards D-326A (U.S.) and ED-202A (Europe) titled "Airworthiness Security Process Specification" are the cornerstones of the "DO-326/ED-202 Set" and they are the only Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) by FAA & EASA for aviation cyber-security airworthiness certification, as of 2019. The "DO-326/ED-202 Set" also includes companion documents DO-356A/ED-203A: "Airworthiness Security Methods and Considerations" & DO-355/ED-204: "Information Security Guidance for Continuing Airworthiness" (U.S. & Europe) and ED-201: "Aeronautical Information System Security (AISS) Framework Guidance" & ED-205: "Process Standard for Security Certification / Declaration of Air Traffic Management / Air Navigation Services (ATM/ANS) Ground Systems“ (Europe only).
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation

2021-12-15
EPR2021028
On-road vehicles equipped with driving automation features—where a human might not be needed for operation on-board—are entering the mainstream public space. However, questions like “How safe is safe enough?” and “What to do if the system fails?” persist. This is where remote operation comes in, which is an additional layer to the automated driving system where a human remotely assists the so-called “driverless” vehicle in certain situations. Such remote-operation solutions introduce additional challenges and potential risks as the entire vehicle-network-human now needs to work together safely, effectively, and practically. Unsettled Issues in Remote Operation for On-road Driving Automation highlights technical questions (e.g., network latency, bandwidth, cyber security) and human aspects (e.g., workload, attentiveness, situational awareness) of remote operation and introduces evolving solutions.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure

2021-12-15
EPR2021030
Information and communication technology is fundamentally changing the way we live and operate in cities, such as instant access to events, transportation, bookings, payments, and other services. At the same time, three “megatrends” in the automotive industry—self-driving, electrification, and advanced manufacturing technology—are enabling the design of innovative, application-specific vehicles that capitalize on city connectivity. Applications could countless; however, they also need to be safe and securely integrated into a city’s physical and digital infrastructure, and into the overall urban ecosystem. Unsettled Issues Concerning Automated Driving Services in the Smart City Infrastructure examines the current state of the industry, the developments in automated driving and robotics, and how these new urban, self-driving city applications are different. It also analyzes higher level challenges for urban applications.
Book

Women Driven Mobility: Rethinking the Way the World Moves

2021-11-22
Where do women fit into the automotive industry? In every possible space-including those they have yet to invent! As Katelyn Shelby Davis and Kristin Shaw demonstrate in Women Driven Mobility, women are in leadership roles in all aspects of the industry. Davis and Shaw seek bring awareness and reroute this through a series of case studies that feature women working in 11 vital pillars of the mobility industry: This book presents over 40 case studies of women leading the way mobility and automotive innovation. Through interviews with leaders across the entire spectrum of industry, readers see the impact of diverse perspectives on actual projects all over the world. From creating accessible AV transportation with May Mobility to developing safe pedestrian and bike routes through Tribal Land, Karuk Tribe to championing diversity, equity and inclusion across the industries, readers are walked through each stage of the project from analysis to conclusion.
Journal Article

A Systematic Mapping Study on Security Countermeasures of In-Vehicle Communication Systems

2021-11-16
Abstract The innovations of vehicle connectivity have been increasing dramatically to enhance the safety and user experience of driving, while the rising numbers of interfaces to the external world also bring security threats to vehicles. Many security countermeasures have been proposed and discussed to protect the systems and services against attacks. To provide an overview of the current states in this research field, we conducted a systematic mapping study (SMS) on the topic area “security countermeasures of in-vehicle communication systems.” A total of 279 papers are identified based on the defined study identification strategy and criteria. We discussed four research questions (RQs) related to the security countermeasures, validation methods, publication patterns, and research trends and gaps based on the extracted and classified data. Finally, we evaluated the validity threats and the whole mapping process.
Research Report

Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing

2021-11-15
EPR2021026
Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” now provides the ability to have an almost fully digital chain from part design through manufacture and service. This “digital thread” can bring great benefits in improving designs, processes, materials, operations, and the ability to predict failure in a way that maximizes safety and minimizes cost and downtime. Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing discusses what the interplay between AM and a digital thread in the mobility industry would look like, the potential benefits and costs, the hurdles that need to be overcome for the combination to be useful, and how an organization can answer these questions to scope and benefit from the combination. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Technical Paper

Improved Run Time Error Analysis Using Formal Methods for Automotive Software - Improvement of Quality, Cost Effectiveness and Efforts to Proactive Defects Check

2021-09-22
2021-26-0459
Quality is what determines success or failure. If products are not error-free, reliable and robust, customers will be put off. Criticism is inevitable. Bosch is focusing on this theme and taking appropriate action to improve the quality of automotive software. Runtime errors most often refer to issues that appear during the execution of a program like buffer overflow issues and pointer access out of bounds. They are important to detect as they may cause critical safety, security or business operation concerns. They can potentially cause the critical systems of high-integrity applications to fail, leading to disastrous results and they have been blamed as the root cause of system failure in high-profile examples in automotive software. This has resulted in identifying run-time error detection as critical field of interest where safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements by all contemporary safety standards where no run-time errors must occur.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Standard

Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Cooperative Driving Automation for On-Road Motor Vehicles

2021-07-16
CURRENT
J3216_202107
This document describes machine-to-machine (M2M) communication to enable cooperation between two or more participating entities or communication devices possessed or controlled by those entities. The cooperation supports or enables performance of the dynamic driving task (DDT) for a subject vehicle with driving automation feature(s) engaged. Other participants may include other vehicles with driving automation feature(s) engaged, shared road users (e.g., drivers of manually operated vehicles or pedestrians or cyclists carrying personal devices), or road operators (e.g., those who maintain or operate traffic signals or workzones). Cooperative driving automation (CDA) aims to improve the safety and flow of traffic and/or facilitate road operations by supporting the movement of multiple vehicles in proximity to one another. This is accomplished, for example, by sharing information that can be used to influence (directly or indirectly) DDT performance by one or more nearby road users.
Technical Paper

It Takes a Village: A Case Study of Business Development and Innovation in a UAS/AUS Ecosystem to Address Critical Industry Challenges

2021-06-16
2021-01-1002
Entrepreneurial innovation that spurs economic development requires a collaborative cluster of cooperative effort, across a diverse ecosystem of partners. Literature provides resounding evidence to support the notion that an innovative, entrepreneurial ecosystem is critical to both successful economic development and industry sector growth. The UAS/AUS industry sector is a fast-growing sector across the United States, with regional leadership demonstrated in North Dakota, California, North Carolina, New York, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico. This case study is focused on investigating how the North Dakota autonomous systems ecosystem continues to evolves and develop mechanisms and partnerships to address industry pain points, facilitate cutting edge research, ensure high-quality UAS/AUS testing, and support an adaptive business development pipeline across the entrepreneurial life cycle.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2021

2021-05-01
Editorial Making Safety Standard The Navigator Sensor Monoculture is a Terrible Idea 3D-printed Radar Rises Toward Production Lunewave's unique Luneburg-lens technology aims to simplify vehicle radar arrays - and deliver better ADAS and AV performance. Accelerating Automotive Radar NXP's new, fifth-generation chipsets unleash 16-nm FinFet technology to the ADAS and AV markets. Autonomy's Computing Backbone Cloud-computing networks are speeding AV development and preparing to manage tomorrow's data-reliant AV fleets. Get in Line Evolving truck-platooning techniques are paving unique paths to high-level commercial vehicle autonomy. Ford in 'No-hands' Land BlueCruise hands-free driver-assist is available later this year for the Mustang Mach-E and F-150 pickup. ADAS-equipped Trucks Save Bucks Bosch research finds one specific driver-assistance feature may reduce costs associated with property damage by up to 35% for Class 7 and 8 trucks.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) for Efficient ISO 26262 Compliance

2021-04-06
2021-01-0067
There has been a significant increase - both in the content of electronics and software in vehicles as well as in recalls attributed to these components and systems. The advanced features, including the onset of autonomous vehicles accompanied by millions of lines of code in software have exponentially increased the complexity of vehicle systems and decreased effectiveness of many of the safety analysis techniques being used to identify hazards and safety requirements - for example, FMEA, FTA, ETA, etc.- which were invented decades before the existence of complexities of such magnitude. This paper examines a new hazard identification technique formalized by Nancy G Leveson of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA in her book “Engineering a Safer World” and further elaborated in the STPA Handbook co-authored with John P Thomas in March 2018.
Technical Paper

Adopting Aviation Safety Knowledge into the Discussions of Safe Implementation of Connected and Autonomous Road Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0074
The development of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) is progressing fast. Yet, safety and standardization-related discussions are limited due to the recent nature of the sector. Despite the effort that is initiated to kick-start the study, awareness among practitioners is still low. Hence, further effort is required to stimulate this discussion. Among the available works on CAV safety, some of them take inspiration from the aviation sector that has strict safety regulations. The underlying reason is the experience that has been gained over the decades. However, the literature still lacks a thorough association between automation in aviation and the CAV from the safety perspective. As such, this paper motivates the adoption of safe-automation knowledge from aviation to facilitate safer CAV systems.
Technical Paper

Putting Safety of Intended Functionality SOTIF into Practice

2021-04-06
2021-01-0196
The increase of autonomy demand in the automotive industry made the usage of AI models inevitable. However, such models introduce a variety of threats to automobile safety and security. ISO/PAS 21448 SOTIF is a safety standard that is designed to deal with risks due to non-electrical and non-electronic failures. In this paper we put SOTIF into practice. In our work we introduce a conceivable safety critical scenario that targets the lane keep assist function. We use the suggested modelling techniques in the SOTIF standard to analyze the scenario and extract the trigger event. In result, we propose a contextual based predictive ML model to monitor the intervention between the driver and lane keep assist system. Our approach followed the SOTIF verification and validation guidelines. Empirically, we use a real safety critical scenario dataset as well as an augmented dataset.
Standard

Electronic Transactions for Aerospace Systems: An Overview

2021-03-01
CURRENT
ARP6823
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) offers an overview of the many key processes that are being transformed as the aerospace industry is rapidly digitalizing. The G-31 Electronic Transactions in Aerospace committee has been established to develop standards related to these processes. This report, also known as the “cornerstone” document for the committee, is a comprehensive look at processes associated with commercial aviation. Because of universal convergence of these technologies, the technologies described here are applicable to other domains as well.
Book

Autonomous Vehicle QuickStart Primer - A Business and Technology Survey of the Autonomous Vehicle Space

2021-01-21
The Autonomous Vehicle QuickStart Primer by Dr. Rahul Razdan is valuable for anyone connected to the transportation industry who wants a basic understanding of the impact of the new wave of electronics and software technology that’s about to transform this world. The book is aimed at professionals who seek insights into the fundamentals of AV technology, business, and regulation, but it doesn’t cover deep engineering and is not highly technical. Instead, it offers a firm foundation of the megatrends driving this technological revolution, the way these technologies intersect with the current transportation system, and the potential for disruptive change. The book takes a look at challenges in the areas of public policy, regulations, safety, legal, and insurance frameworks that are currently being debated, and the pilot programs being implemented in some areas.
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