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Technical Paper

Applying Concolic Testing to the Automotive Domain

2024-04-09
2024-01-2802
Symbolic code execution is a powerful cybersecurity testing approach that facilitates the systematic exploration of all paths within a program to uncover previously unknown cybersecurity vulnerabilities. ...Symbolic code execution is a powerful cybersecurity testing approach that facilitates the systematic exploration of all paths within a program to uncover previously unknown cybersecurity vulnerabilities. This is achieved through a Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solver, which operates on symbolic values for program inputs instead of using their concrete counterparts.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Network Security Configuration (NSC) Practices in Vehicle-related Android Applications

2024-04-09
2024-01-2881
The growth of vehicle connectivity has raised heightened concerns about user security and data privacy. This rise highlights the important role of mobile applications for vehicles, as vehicles not only provide digital convenience but become key to public safety and trust. Despite their importance, these vehicle apps also suffer from the same vulnerabilities that affect the broader Android ecosystem, particularly being susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks due to insecure custom SSL/TLS implementations. In response, Google introduced the Network Security Configuration (NSC) as a configuration-based solution to improve the security of certificate validation practices. NSC was initially developed to enhance the security of Android applications by providing developers with a framework to customize network security settings. However, recent studies have shown that it is often not being leveraged appropriately to enhance security.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Requirements, Specifications, and Framework of a Digital Thread in Aircraft Data Life Cycle Management

2024-03-05
2024-01-1946
In the aerospace community, the digital thread is a powerful concept to facilitate an asset's tracking, analysis, and performance improvement across its entire lifecycle. The digital thread constitutes numerous flows of information as a digital representation of events related to product information throughout the product lifecycle. The digital thread provides the data and structure necessary to obtain data from real-world events and align that data with the virtual design objects and their real-time physical transformations over the object lifecycle stages and as the operational state changes. The number of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has been growing over the past few years and will continue to grow at a faster pace in the near future. UAS faces many challenges in certification, airspace management, operations, supply chain, and maintenance.
Event

Program - Government/Industry Meeting 2024

2024-02-22
Annual conference government policy, regulatory makers, automotive industry neutral forum discuss US government regulation, technology, customer acceptance future vehicle design. industry event safety, emission control, fuel efficiency, automated vehicles.

SAE EDGE™ Research Reports - Publications

2024-02-22
SAE EDGE Research Reports provide examinations significant topics facing mobility industry today including Connected Automated Vehicle Technologies Electrification Advanced Manufacturing
Book

Aerospace Standards Index - 2024

2024-02-12
This valuable resource lists all Aerospace Standards (AS), Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP), Aerospace Information Reports (AIR), and Aerospace Resource Documents (ARD) published by SAE. Each listing includes title, subject, document number, key words, new and revised documents, and DODISS-adopted documents. AMS Index - Now Available!
Technical Paper

Access Control Requirements for Autonomous Robotic Fleets

2023-04-11
2023-01-0104
Access control enforces security policies for controlling critical resources. For V2X (Vehicle to Everything) autonomous military vehicle fleets, network middleware systems such as ROS (Robotic Operating System) expose system resources through networked publisher/subscriber and client/server paradigms. Without proper access control, these systems are vulnerable to attacks from compromised network nodes, which may perform data poisoning attacks, flood packets on a network, or attempt to gain lateral control of other resources. Access control for robotic middleware systems has been investigated in both ROS1 and ROS2. Still, these implementations do not have mechanisms for evaluating a policy's consistency and completeness or writing expressive policies for distributed fleets. We explore an RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) mechanism layered onto ROS environments that uses local permission caches with precomputed truth tables for fast policy evaluation.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Automotive Requirements Analysis

2023-04-11
2023-01-0864
Automotive system functionalities spread over a wide range of sub-domains ranging from non-driving related components to complex autonomous driving related components. The requirements to design and develop these components span across software, hardware, firmware, etc. elements. The successful development of these components to achieve the needs from the stockholders requires accurate understanding and traceability of the requirements of these component systems. The high-level customer requirements transformation into low level granularity requires an efficient requirement engineer. The manual understanding of the customer requirements from the requirement documents are influenced by the context and the knowledge gap of the requirement engineer in understanding and transforming the requirements.
Technical Paper

Review on CAN Bus Protocol: Attacks, Difficulties, and Potential Solutions

2023-04-11
2023-01-0926
The new generation vehicles these days are managed by networked controllers. A large portion of the networks is planned with more security which has recently roused researchers to exhibit various attacks against the system. This paper talks about the liabilities of the Controller Area Network (CAN) inside In-vehicle communication protocol and a few potentials that could take due advantage of it. Moreover, this paper presents a few security measures proposed in the present examination status to defeat the attacks. In any case, the fundamental objective of this paper is to feature a comprehensive methodology known as Intrusion Detection System (IDS), which has been a significant device in getting network data in systems over many years. To the best of our insight, there is no recorded writing on a through outline of IDS execution explicitly in the CAN transport network system.
Technical Paper

Hardware-Based Cyber Security for Connected Vehicles

2023-04-11
2023-01-0038
There continues to be massive advancements in modern connected vehicles and with these advancements, connectivity continues to rapidly become more integral to the way these vehicles are designed and operated. Vehicle connectivity was originally introduced for the purpose of providing software updates to the vehicle’s main system software, and we have seen the adoption of Over The Air updates (OTA) become mainstream with most OEMs. The exploitation of this connectivity is far more reaching than just basic software updates. In the latest vehicles it is possible to update software not just on the main vehicle systems, but to potentially update embedded software in all smart ECUs within the vehicle. Only using the connectivity to push data to the vehicle is not making full use of the potential of this increased connectivity. Being able to collect vehicle data for offline analysis and processing also brings huge benefits to the use of this technology.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity by Agile Design

2023-04-11
2023-01-0035
ISO/SAE 21434 [1] Final International Standard was released September 2021 to great fanfare and is the most prominent standard in Automotive Cybersecurity. As members of the Joint Working Group (JWG) the authors spent 5 years developing the 84 pages of precise wording acceptable to hundreds of contributors. ...The application to Agile may require interpreting the standard from another angle, which could involve reordering the sequence of activities and work products, breaking down the acceptable criteria of some work products to allow rapid iterations, and verifications of meta data or intermediate work products. In cybersecurity engineering, Agile has its unique strength compared to the V-model method, as its cyclical nature is better aligned with best practices for Cybersecurity Frameworks. ...In cybersecurity engineering, Agile has its unique strength compared to the V-model method, as its cyclical nature is better aligned with best practices for Cybersecurity Frameworks.
Training / Education

Managing Energy Data: Advanced Analytics

Anytime
Introduction to Managing Energy Data: The Internet of Things (IoT) revolution (eg. the vast spread of smart meters worldwide) is generating massive amounts of energy data, drastically transforming the sector and current energy systems. This digital transformation gives rise to more intelligent ways of managing energy and brings about opportunities for energy companies to improve their business models and services. This course contains a brief introduction to the topics presented in the course, from smart meters and smart metering data to data science.
Training / Education

Cybersecurity in the Energy Sector

Anytime
Anatomy and examples of cyberattacks on industrial control systems (ICS) and critical infrastructures (CI): In this course you will understand the importance of cybersecurity for Critical Infrastructure and you will know typical attack vectors, vulnerabilities and defense strategies. ...Decentralized Energy Systems Security: In this course you will know relevant technical countermeasures for cybersecurity. You will understand threats and solutions concerning data communication and network security in the energy systems.
Technical Paper

Research on the Development Path and Policy Recommendations of Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperation

2022-12-22
2022-01-7065
By looking into the vehicle-infrastructure cooperation (VIC) which is oriented towards intelligent, networked and integrated development, this paper analyzes and proposes the essence and development direction of Intelligent Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperation Systems (I-VICS). With an in-depth analysis of technologies of core importance to VIC and influence factors that constrain VIC development as a whole, the paper comes up with a technological route for VIC, and identifies a direction for vehicle-infrastructure cooperative development that progresses from primary to intermediate cooperation, then to advanced cooperation, and finally to full-fledged cooperation. Policy recommendations aiming at strengthening top-level design, building an integrated vehicle-infrastructure-cloud platform, expediting independence of key techs, building robust standards and regulations for VIC, enhancing workforce development as well as greater efforts at market promotion are put forward.
Technical Paper

Common Vulnerability Considerations as an Integral Part of the Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering Process

2022-10-05
2022-28-0304
To build secure systems of road vehicles, the cybersecurity engineering standard ISO21434[11] suggests the evaluation of vulnerabilities throughout engineering process, such as attack path analysis, system requirement stage, software architecture, design, and implementation and testing phases. ...With my analysis and practices, it is appropriate to include the common vulnerabilities that ought to be an integral part of the automotive cybersecurity engineering process. In this paper, the author would like to provide a list of vulnerabilities that might be a suggestion for threat analysis and risk assessment and propose two solutions that may be adopted directly in the V-model for security-relevant software development.
Journal Article

Wireless Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

2022-08-17
Abstract Vehicular communications face unique security issues in wireless communications. While new vehicles are equipped with a large set of communication technologies, product life cycles are long and software updates are not widespread. The result is a host of outdated and unpatched technologies being used on the street. This has especially severe security impacts because autonomous vehicles are pushing into the market, which will rely, at least partly, on the integrity of the provided information. We provide an overview of the currently deployed communication systems and their security weaknesses and features to collect and compare widely used security mechanisms. In this survey, we focus on technologies that work in an ad hoc manner. This includes Long-Term Evolution mode 4 (LTE-PC5), Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), Intelligent Transportation Systems at 5 Gigahertz (ITS-G5), and Bluetooth.
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