Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as “3D printing,” now provides the ability to have an almost fully digital chain from part design through manufacture and service. This “digital thread” can bring great benefits in improving designs, processes, materials, operations, and the ability to predict failure in a way that maximizes safety and minimizes cost and downtime. Unsettled Aspects of the Digital Thread in Additive Manufacturing discusses what the interplay between AM and a digital thread in the mobility industry would look like, the potential benefits and costs, the hurdles that need to be overcome for the combination to be useful, and how an organization can answer these questions to scope and benefit from the combination. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.
Passenger vehicles have made astounding technological leaps in recent years. Unfortunately, little of that progress has trickled down to other segments of the transportation industry leaving opportunities for massive gains in safety and performance. In particular, the electric drum brakes on most consumer trailers differ little from those on trailers over 70 years ago. Careful examination of current production passenger vehicle hardware and trailering provided the opportunity to produce a design and test vehicle for a plausible, practical, and performant trailer braking system for the future. This study equips the trailer with high control frequency antilock braking and dynamic torque distribution through use of passenger vehicle grade apply hardware.
Defending the heavy-vehicle cyber domain Cybersecurity experts explained at SAE COMVEC 2021 how they're preparing the next generation of thwarters to protect increasingly electrified, connected and automated trucks.
Quality is what determines success or failure. If products are not error-free, reliable and robust, customers will be put off. Criticism is inevitable. Bosch is focusing on this theme and taking appropriate action to improve the quality of automotive software. Runtime errors most often refer to issues that appear during the execution of a program like buffer overflow issues and pointer access out of bounds. They are important to detect as they may cause critical safety, security or business operation concerns. They can potentially cause the critical systems of high-integrity applications to fail, leading to disastrous results and they have been blamed as the root cause of system failure in high-profile examples in automotive software. This has resulted in identifying run-time error detection as critical field of interest where safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements by all contemporary safety standards where no run-time errors must occur.
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Abstract Heavy vehicles are essential for the modern economy, delivering critical food, supplies, and freight throughout the world. Connected heavy vehicles are also driven by embedded computers that utilize internal communication using common standards. However, some implementations of the standards leave an opening for a malicious actor to abuse the system. One such abuse case is a cyber-attack known as the “Address Claim Attack.” Proposed in 2018, this attack uses a single network message to disable all communication to and from a target electronic control unit, which may have a detrimental effect on operating the vehicle. This article demonstrates the viability of the attack and then describes the implementation of a solution to prevent this attack in real time without requiring any intervention from the manufacturer of the target devices. The defense technique uses a bit-banged Controller Area Network (CAN) filter to detect the attack.
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides insights on how to perform a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) to determine the Return on Investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a blockchain solution to a new or an existing business process. The word “blockchain” refers to a method of documenting when data transactions occur using a distributed ledger with desired immutable qualities. The scope of the current document is on enterprise blockchain which gives the benefit of standardized cryptography, legal enforceability and regulatory compliance. The document analyzes the complexity involved with this technology, lists some of the different approaches that can be used for conducting a CBA, and differentiates its analysis depending on whether the application uses a public or a private distributed network.
The flexible data rate capability in CAN (commonly called CAN FD) is implemented as a transport layer in order to allow for functional safety, cybersecurity, extended transport capability, and backward compatibility with SAE J1939DA.
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).