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Introduction to Cyber Security for Commercial Aviation

2022-04-07
Despite the advantages of electronic flight bags (EFB), passenger entertainment and email access during flights, and the ability to access aircraft repair manuals electronically, computer interconnectivity throughout aviation has opened the aviation sector to cyber-attacks that could impact flights, data, and safety. This two-day seminar is intended to introduce aviation professionals to the need to implement cyber security throughout commercial aviation including the supply chain.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2021

2021-12-01
High on hydrogen Through its Symbio joint venture with Michelin, Faurecia expands far beyond its interior-systems base into the fuel-cell future. Simulating a faster route to ADAS and AV validation With its new cloud-based Simphera platform, dSpace responds to demand from global automated-vehicle development teams to help manage their expanding, complex workload. Innovating the methanol fuel cell Using methanol as the source fuel provides an alternative to a gaseous-hydrogen distribution and storage infrastructure, among other potential benefits. Engineering the 2022 Toyota Tundra Chief Engineer Mike Sweers talks structure, materials and a different approach to hybrid power.
Technical Paper

Towards Establishing Continuous-X Pipeline Using Modular Software-in-the-Loop Test Environments

2021-09-22
2021-26-0412
Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) test environments are the ideal virtual platforms for enabling continuous-development, -integration, -testing -delivery or -deployment commonly referred as Continuous-X (CX) of the complex functionalities in the current automotive industry. This trend especially is contributed by several factors such as the industry wide standardization of the model exchange formats, interfaces as well as architecture definitions. The approach of frontloading software testing with SiL test environments is predominantly advocated as well as already adopted by various Automotive OEMs, thereby the demand for innovating applicable methods is increasing. However, prominent usage of the existing monolithic architecture for interaction of various elements in the SiL environment, without regarding the separation between functional and non-functional test scope, is reducing the usability and thus limiting significantly the cost saving potential of CX with SiL.
Standard

Determination of Cost Benefits from Implementing a Blockchain Solution

2021-08-19
CURRENT
ARP6984
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides insights on how to perform a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) to determine the Return on Investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a blockchain solution to a new or an existing business process. The word “blockchain” refers to a method of documenting when data transactions occur using a distributed ledger with desired immutable qualities. The scope of the current document is on enterprise blockchain which gives the benefit of standardized cryptography, legal enforceability and regulatory compliance. The document analyzes the complexity involved with this technology, lists some of the different approaches that can be used for conducting a CBA, and differentiates its analysis depending on whether the application uses a public or a private distributed network.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2021

2021-06-01
No shortage of challenges Supply chain struggles join perennial challenges for Cummins' off-highway business, namely meeting shifting global emissions standards and satisfying emerging technology trends. Batteries not the only route to EV efficiency Allison CTO stresses efficiency and safety of propulsion units also are critical to reducing cost, improving performance and ultimately winning over customers. Batteries go underground A Saft expert evaluates various Li-ion chemistries and strategies - battery swapping vs. fast charging - for electric mining vehicles. Platooning: an evolving pathway to full autonomy Human-guided convoys can provide real-world benefits sooner than individual driverless trucks, but safety and operational issues still need to be resolved to optimize platoon configurations. Supplier Directory Complete listing of industry suppliers categorized by technology area.
Standard

Artificial Intelligence in Aeronautical Systems: Statement of Concerns

2021-04-30
CURRENT
AIR6988
This document reviews current aerospace software, hardware, and system development standards used in the certification/approval process of safety-critical airborne and ground-based systems, and assesses whether these standards are compatible with a typical Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) development approach. The document then outlines what is required to produce a standard that provides the necessary accommodation to support integration of ML-enabled sub-systems into safety-critical airborne and ground-based systems, and details next steps in the production of such a standard.
Book

The Road Forward: More Conversations with Top Women in the Automotive Industry

2021-04-22
Carla Bailo, CEO of the Center for Automotive Research, and Terry Barclay, CEO of Inforum, bring together over 70 of the most influential women in the automotive industry to share their insight and advice. As with their first book, The Road to the Top, Bailo and Barclay interview women in positions of leadership throughout the industry from suppliers, to OEMs and academia. The Road Forward provides insight and advice to all professionals on the impact of the COVID pandemic by sharing their thoughts of the road ahead and what changes they have experienced professionally, personally, and socially. In addition, the leaders discuss resilience, professional network maintenance and growth, personal growth, diversity and inclusion, and sustainability.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Real Time Vulnerability Fixes Verification Mechanism for Automotive Firmware/Software

2021-04-06
2021-01-0183
Software vulnerability management is one of the most critical and crucial security techniques, which analyzes the automotive software/firmware across the digital cockpit, ADAS, V2X, etc. domains for vulnerabilities, and provides security patches for the concerned Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The process of automotive SW/FW vulnerability management system between the OEMs and vendors happen through a channel of fixing a certain number of vulnerabilities by 1st tier supplier which needs to be verified in front of OEMs for the fixed number and type of patches in there deliverable SW/FW. The gap of verification between for the fixed patches between the OEMs and 1st tier supplier requires a reliable human independent intelligent technique to have a trustworthiness of verification.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles.
Standard

Electronic Transactions for Aerospace Systems: An Overview

2021-03-01
CURRENT
ARP6823
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) offers an overview of the many key processes that are being transformed as the aerospace industry is rapidly digitalizing. The G-31 Electronic Transactions in Aerospace committee has been established to develop standards related to these processes. This report, also known as the “cornerstone” document for the committee, is a comprehensive look at processes associated with commercial aviation. Because of universal convergence of these technologies, the technologies described here are applicable to other domains as well.
Journal Article

Simple Cryptographic Key Management Scheme of the Electronic Control Unit in the Lifecycle of a Vehicle

2020-12-31
Abstract Connecting vehicles to various network services increases the risk of in-vehicle cyberattacks. For automotive industries, the supply chain for assembling a vehicle consists of many different organizations such as component suppliers, system suppliers, and car manufacturers (CMs). Moreover, once a vehicle has shipped from the factory of the CM, resellers, dealers, and owners of the vehicle may add and replace the optional authorized and third-party equipment. Such equipment may have serious security vulnerabilities that may be targeted by a malicious attacker. The key management system of a vehicle must be applicable to all use cases. We propose a novel key management system adaptable to the electronic control unit (ECU) lifecycle of a vehicle. The scope of our system is not only the vehicle product line but also the third-party vendors of automotive accessories and vehicle maintenance facilities, including resellers, dealers, and vehicle users.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2020

2020-11-26
Volkswagen reveals its 'people's' EV VW's ID.4 leads the 2021 stampede to electrification for the mass market. Answering the fuel-cell compressor question The optimum compressor device for a fuel cell depends on vehicle application - and a lot more. An Eaton expert explains. Tire pressure's impact on EV driving range A new study shows that tighter control of tire-pressure loss can lead to marked improvement in electric-vehicle efficiency. Editorial Warm socks for the EV options list Supplier Eye For suppliers, a new drumbeat New SAE wireless charging standard is EV game-changer Tula DMD aims for more-efficient e-machines Multiphysics helps transform modeling, simulation Is the camshaft being timed out? New Magna seat puts connectivity in the second row BMW reveals its first "M" performance-badged two-wheeler Volkswagen readies new-generation Golf R Q&A Discussing safety tech, standards and industry trends with Hyundai North America's Brian Latouf
Book

How to Manage the Perfect Factory or How AS6500 Can Lead To Everlasting Happiness

2020-10-01
Why AS6500? Where did it come from? Why does it exist? Those are easy questions to answer. It came from the inspiration of angels and it exists to make your life, and your factory, more perfect. That's why, when you open the standard, you can still hear the faint echoes of the singing of angels. Actually, experts were gathered from across the country, both from the Defense Department and from industry to create the new document. They toiled away until the perfect product emerged from the fruit of their labors: Aerospace Standard AS6500, "Manufacturing Management Program," published in November 2014. How to Manage the Perfect Factory combines education and instruction with fun, laughter and motivation. The book gently pokes fun at the people and organizational barriers that the Manufacturing function must overcome to make those obstacles seem more surmountable while providing key information on implementing AS6500.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2020

2020-10-01
The Role of Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technologies in Defense Applications Information Warfare - Staying Protected at the Edge Designing Connectivity Solutions for an Electric Aircraft Future Redesigning the Systems Engineering Process to Speed Development of E-Propulsion Aircraft Four RF Technology Trends You Need to Know for Satellite Communication Device Design Manufacturer Reduces Risk and Improves Quality of Military Radar Receivers Instrumentation for Fabrication and Testing of High-Speed Single-Rotor and Compound-Rotor Systems Precision data acquisition is required to generate a comprehensive set of measurements of the blade surface pressures, pitch link loads, hub loads, rotor wakes and performance of high-speed single-rotor and compound-rotor systems to support the development of next-generation rotorcraft.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Standard

Requirements for a COTS Assembly Management Plan

2020-08-03
CURRENT
EIA933C
This document applies to the development of Plans for integrating and managing COTS assemblies in electronic equipment and Systems for the commercial, military, and space markets; as well as other ADHP markets that wish to use this document. For purposes of this document, COTS assemblies are viewed as electronic assemblies such as printed wiring assemblies, relays, disk drives, LCD matrices, VME circuit cards, servers, printers, laptop computers, etc. There are many ways to categorize COTS assemblies1, including the following spectrum: At one end of the spectrum are COTS assemblies whose design, internal parts2, materials, configuration control, traceability, reliability, and qualification methods are at least partially controlled, or influenced, by ADHP customers (either individually or collectively). An example at this end of the spectrum is a VME circuit card assembly.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Development Ecosystem

2020-03-17
EPR2020004
With over 100 years of operation, the current automobile industry has settled into an equilibrium with the development of methodologies, regulations, and processes for improving safety. In addition, a nearly $2-trillion market operates in the automotive ecosystem with connections into fields ranging from insurance to advertising. Enabling this ecosystem is a well-honed, tiered supply chain and an established development environment. Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology is a leap forward for the existing automotive industry; now the automobile is expected to manage perception and decision-making tasks. The safety technologies associated with these tasks were presented in an earlier SAE EDGE™ Research Report, “Unsettled Technology Areas in Autonomous Vehicle Test and Validation.”
Standard

Hardware Protected Security for Ground Vehicles

2020-02-10
CURRENT
J3101_202002
Access mechanisms to system data and/or control is a primary use case of the hardware protected security environment (hardware protected security environment) during different uses and stages of the system. The hardware protected security environment acts as a gatekeeper for these use cases and not necessarily as the executor of the function. This section is a generalization of such use cases in an attempt to extract common requirements for the hardware protected security environment that enable it to be a gatekeeper. Examples are: Creating a new key fob Re-flashing ECU firmware Reading/exporting PII out of the ECU Using a subscription-based feature Performing some service on an ECU Transferring ownership of the vehicle Some of these examples are discussed later in this section and some have detailed sections of their own. This list is by no means comprehensive.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

2019-11-05
EPR2019005
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components - which together represent almost $2 trillion of the U.S. economy - are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs.
Book

Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Impacting Commercial Aviation

2019-09-04
Written by Kirsten Koepsel, a lawyer and engineer whose work has focused on aviation cybersecurity, Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Impacting Commercial Aviation addresses the big question facing aircraft manufacturers today: keep the work in house or outsource it? ...Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Impacting Commercial Aviation discusses the differences in requirements depending on the buyer of the aircraft (governmental or not), ranging from delivery delays to risks linked to cybersecurity and the Internet of Things (IoT), including possible problems with faulty sensors and counterfeit parts.
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