Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Contextual Study of Security and Privacy in V2X Communication for Architecture & Networking products

2024-10-17
2024-28-0038
In recent times there has been an upward trend in "Connected Vehicles", which has significantly improved not only the driving experience but also the "ownership of the car". The use of state-of-the-art wireless technologies, such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X) connectivity, is crucial for its dependability and safety. V2X also effectively extends the information flow between the transportation ecosystem pedestrians, public infrastructure (traffic management system) and parking infrastructure, charging and fuel stations, Etc. V2X has a lot of potential to enhance traffic flow, boost traffic safety, and provide drivers and operators with new services. One of the fundamental issues is maintaining trustworthy and quick communication between cars and infrastructure. While establishing stable connectivity, reducing interference, and controlling the fluctuating quality of wireless transmissions, we have to ensure the Security and Privacy of V2I.
Book

The New Future of Public Transportation

2024-04-11
From hydrogen-fueled buses to AI-driven advancements and cybersecurity, this book offers an unparalleled glimpse into the future of transit. Navigate the complexities of transit planning in a post-COVID world, where innovative solutions are essential to tackle infrastructure challenges and workforce shortages.
Journal Article

Employing a Model of Computation for Testing and Verifying the Security of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

2024-03-05
Abstract Testing and verifying the security of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) under cyber-physical attacks is a critical challenge for ensuring their safety and reliability. Proposed in this article is a novel testing framework based on a model of computation that generates scenarios and attacks in a closed-loop manner, while measuring the safety of the unit under testing (UUT), using a verification vector. The framework was applied for testing the performance of two cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) controllers under false data injection (FDI) attacks. Serving as the baseline controller is one of a traditional design, while the proposed controller uses a resilient design that combines a model and learning-based algorithm to detect and mitigate FDI attacks in real-time.
Journal Article

A Deep Neural Network Attack Simulation against Data Storage of Autonomous Vehicles

2023-09-29
Abstract In the pursuit of advancing autonomous vehicles (AVs), data-driven algorithms have become pivotal in replacing human perception and decision-making. While deep neural networks (DNNs) hold promise for perception tasks, the potential for catastrophic consequences due to algorithmic flaws is concerning. A well-known incident in 2016, involving a Tesla autopilot misidentifying a white truck as a cloud, underscores the risks and security vulnerabilities. In this article, we present a novel threat model and risk assessment (TARA) analysis on AV data storage, delving into potential threats and damage scenarios. Specifically, we focus on DNN parameter manipulation attacks, evaluating their impact on three distinct algorithms for traffic sign classification and lane assist.
Technical Paper

Research on the Development Path and Policy Recommendations of Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperation

2022-12-22
2022-01-7065
By looking into the vehicle-infrastructure cooperation (VIC) which is oriented towards intelligent, networked and integrated development, this paper analyzes and proposes the essence and development direction of Intelligent Vehicle Infrastructure Cooperation Systems (I-VICS). With an in-depth analysis of technologies of core importance to VIC and influence factors that constrain VIC development as a whole, the paper comes up with a technological route for VIC, and identifies a direction for vehicle-infrastructure cooperative development that progresses from primary to intermediate cooperation, then to advanced cooperation, and finally to full-fledged cooperation. Policy recommendations aiming at strengthening top-level design, building an integrated vehicle-infrastructure-cloud platform, expediting independence of key techs, building robust standards and regulations for VIC, enhancing workforce development as well as greater efforts at market promotion are put forward.
Journal Article

Wireless Security in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

2022-08-17
Abstract Vehicular communications face unique security issues in wireless communications. While new vehicles are equipped with a large set of communication technologies, product life cycles are long and software updates are not widespread. The result is a host of outdated and unpatched technologies being used on the street. This has especially severe security impacts because autonomous vehicles are pushing into the market, which will rely, at least partly, on the integrity of the provided information. We provide an overview of the currently deployed communication systems and their security weaknesses and features to collect and compare widely used security mechanisms. In this survey, we focus on technologies that work in an ad hoc manner. This includes Long-Term Evolution mode 4 (LTE-PC5), Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), Intelligent Transportation Systems at 5 Gigahertz (ITS-G5), and Bluetooth.
Research Report

Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles, Facial Recognition, and Privacy Rights

2022-07-28
EPR2022016
Facial recognition software (FRS) is a form of biometric security that detects a face, analyzes it, converts it to data, and then matches it with images in a database. This technology is currently being used in vehicles for safety and convenience features, such as detecting driver fatigue, ensuring ride share drivers are wearing a face covering, or unlocking the vehicle. Public transportation hubs can also use FRS to identify missing persons, intercept domestic terrorism, deter theft, and achieve other security initiatives. However, biometric data is sensitive and there are numerous remaining questions about how to implement and regulate FRS in a way that maximizes its safety and security potential while simultaneously ensuring individual’s right to privacy, data security, and technology-based equality.
Standard

Requirements for Probe Data Collection Applications

2022-06-09
CURRENT
J2945/C_202206
Connected vehicles can provide data from multiple sensors that monitor both the vehicle and the environment through which the vehicle is passing. The data, when shared, can be used to enhance and optimize transportation operations and management—specifically, traffic flow and infrastructure maintenance. This document describes an interface between vehicle and infrastructure for collecting vehicle/probe data. That data may represent a single point in time or may be accumulated over defined periods of time or distance, or may be triggered based on circumstance. The purpose of this document is to define an interoperable means of collecting the vehicle/probe data in support of the use cases defined herein. There are many additional use cases that may be realized based on the interface defined in this document. Note that vehicle diagnostics are not included within the scope of this document, but diagnostics-related features may be added to probe data in a future supplemental document.
Journal Article

Physics-Based Misbehavior Detection System for V2X Communications

2022-03-04
Abstract Vehicle to Everything (V2X) allows vehicles, pedestrians, and infrastructure to share information for the purpose of preventing accidents, enhancing road safety, and improving the efficiency and energy consumption of transportation. Although V2X messages are authenticated, their content is not validated. Sensor errors or adversarial attacks can cause messages to be perturbed and, therefore, increase the likelihood of traffic jams, compromise the decision process of other vehicles, or provoke fatal crashes. In this article, we introduce V2X Core Anomaly Detection System (VCADS), a system based on the theory presented in [1] and built for the fields provided in the periodic messages shared across vehicles (i.e., Basic Safety Messages, BSMs). VCADS uses physics-based models to constrain the values in each field and detect anomalies by finding the numerical difference between a field and independent derivations of the same field.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation

2021-09-13
EPR2021020
Their associated information technology and cyber physical systems—along with an exponentially resultant number of interconnections—present a massive cybersecurity challenge. Unlike the physical security challenge, which was treated in earnest throughout the last decades, cyber-attacks on airports keep coming, but most airport lack essential means to confront such cyber-attacks. ...These missing means are not technical tools, but rather holistic regulatory directives, technical and process standards, guides, and best practices for airports cybersecurity—even airport cybersecurity concepts and basic definitions are missing in certain cases. Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation offers a deeper analysis of these issues and their causes, focusing on the unique characteristics of airports in general, specific cybersecurity challenges, missing definitions, and conceptual infrastructure for the standardization and regulation of airports cybersecurity. ...Unsettled Topics Concerning Airport Cybersecurity Standards and Regulation offers a deeper analysis of these issues and their causes, focusing on the unique characteristics of airports in general, specific cybersecurity challenges, missing definitions, and conceptual infrastructure for the standardization and regulation of airports cybersecurity.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2021

2021-06-01
No shortage of challenges Supply chain struggles join perennial challenges for Cummins' off-highway business, namely meeting shifting global emissions standards and satisfying emerging technology trends. Batteries not the only route to EV efficiency Allison CTO stresses efficiency and safety of propulsion units also are critical to reducing cost, improving performance and ultimately winning over customers. Batteries go underground A Saft expert evaluates various Li-ion chemistries and strategies - battery swapping vs. fast charging - for electric mining vehicles. Platooning: an evolving pathway to full autonomy Human-guided convoys can provide real-world benefits sooner than individual driverless trucks, but safety and operational issues still need to be resolved to optimize platoon configurations. Supplier Directory Complete listing of industry suppliers categorized by technology area.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Risk Management Approach to Information Security in Intelligent Transport Systems

2021-05-05
Abstract Connected vehicles and intelligent transportation systems are currently evolving into highly interconnected digital environments. Due to the interconnectivity of different systems and complex communication flows, a joint risk analysis for combining safety and security from a system perspective does not yet exist. We introduce a novel method for joint risk assessment in the automotive sector as a combination of the Diamond Model, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR). These methods have been sequentially composed, which results in a comprehensive risk management approach to information security in an intelligent transport system (ITS). The Diamond Model serves to identify and structurally describe threats and scenarios, the widely accepted FMEA provides threat analysis by identifying possible error combinations, and FAIR provides a quantitative estimation of probabilities for the frequency and magnitude of risk events.
Journal Article

Using Delphi and System Dynamics for IoT Cybersecurity: Preliminary Airport Implications

2021-03-02
2021-01-0019
Day by day, airports adopt more IoT devices. However, airports are not exempt from possible failures due to malware’s proliferation that can abuse vulnerabilities. Computer criminals can access, corrupt, and extract information from individuals or companies. This paper explains the development of a propagation model, which started with a Delphi process. We discuss the preliminary implications for airports of the simulation model built from the Delphi recommendations.
Technical Paper

Technical Trends of the Intelligent Connected Vehicle and Development Stage Division for Freeway Traffic Control

2020-12-30
2020-01-5134
It is deemed that currently the intelligent connected vehicle (ICV) is in its early stage of development, and it will go through multiple development stages in the future to realize its final goal—autonomous driving. Based on the existing ICV researches, this paper believes that ICV can be used to improve the efficiency and safety of freeway. The current research of ICV has two main directions: one focuses on the traffic flow characteristics of vehicles with different attributes, the other is concerned with using ICV to reduce congestion. From the policies issued by countries around the world and the development plans promoted by major vehicle manufacturers, the future development trends and challenges of ICV are analyzed. ICV must overcome all the shortcomings to achieve its final goal, including insufficient hardware capabilities or excessive cost, and the degree of intelligence that needs to be improved.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2020

2020-09-03
Editorial AV lidar enters a new reality The Navigator UNECE takes first step toward AV regulation Special Delivery - by 'Bot Michigan start-up Refraction AI aims to be the go-to for last-mile, semi-autonomous, all-weather delivery robots. Lidar Infiltrates ADAS Once considered a necessity only in fully autonomous vehicles, lidar sensors are now being evaluated for lower-level driver-assistance systems. Training Data-hungry AI Algorithms Large-scale data refinement is key to bringing more sophisticated automated-driving functions to series production. Simulation's Next Generation Do autonomous-vehicle developers have their simulation strategies all wrong? Some experts think so - but suggest there's a practical solution. Marelli's COVID-killing HVAC Insert With big implications for shared mobility, a new photocatalytic cabin-air purifier claims to kill viruses - including COVID-19. Is Ground-penetrating Radar Next for AV Sensing?
Journal Article

Pseudonym Issuing Strategies for Privacy-Preserving V2X Communication

2020-08-18
Abstract Connected vehicle technology consisting of Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication falls under the umbrella of V2X, or Vehicle-to-Everything, communication. This enables vehicles and infrastructure to exchange safety-related information to enable smarter, safer roads. If driver alerts are raised or automated action is taken as a result of these messages, it is critical that messages are trustworthy and reliable. To this end, the Security Credential Management System (SCMS) and Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems (C-ITS) Credential Management System (CCMS) have been proposed to enable authentication and authorization of V2X messages without compromising individual user privacy. This is accomplished by issuing each vehicle a large set of “pseudonyms,” unrelated to any real-world identity. During operation, the vehicle periodically switches pseudonyms, thereby changing its identity to others in the network.
Standard

Requirements for a COTS Assembly Management Plan

2020-08-03
CURRENT
EIA933C
This document applies to the development of Plans for integrating and managing COTS assemblies in electronic equipment and Systems for the commercial, military, and space markets; as well as other ADHP markets that wish to use this document. For purposes of this document, COTS assemblies are viewed as electronic assemblies such as printed wiring assemblies, relays, disk drives, LCD matrices, VME circuit cards, servers, printers, laptop computers, etc. There are many ways to categorize COTS assemblies1, including the following spectrum: At one end of the spectrum are COTS assemblies whose design, internal parts2, materials, configuration control, traceability, reliability, and qualification methods are at least partially controlled, or influenced, by ADHP customers (either individually or collectively). An example at this end of the spectrum is a VME circuit card assembly.
Journal Article

uACPC: Client-Initiated Privacy-Preserving Activation Codes for Pseudonym Certificates Model

2020-07-27
Abstract With the adoption of Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology, security and privacy of vehicles are paramount. To avoid tracking while preserving vehicle/driver’s privacy, modern vehicular public key infrastructure provision vehicles with multiple short-term pseudonym certificates. However, provisioning a large number of pseudonym certificates can lead to an enormous growth of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) during its revocation process. One possible approach to avoid such CRL growth is by relying on activation code (AC)-based solutions. In such solutions, the vehicles are provisioned with batches of encrypted certificates, which are decrypted periodically via the ACs (broadcasted by the back-end system). When the system detects a revoked vehicle, it simply does not broadcast the respective vehicle’s AC. As a result, revoked vehicles do not receive their respective AC and are prevented from decrypting their certificates.
X