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Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Cybersecurity Based on Dedicated Security Hardware and ECDH Algorithm

2017-09-23
2017-01-2005
Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Dedicated security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. ...For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-bit HSM’s AES calculating speed is 25 times of 32-bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity. After comparing two existing methods that realize secure CAN communication, A Modified SECURE CAN scheme is proposed, and differences of the three schemes are analyzed.
Journal Article

Using Delphi and System Dynamics for IoT Cybersecurity: Preliminary Airport Implications

2021-03-02
2021-01-0019
Day by day, airports adopt more IoT devices. However, airports are not exempt from possible failures due to malware’s proliferation that can abuse vulnerabilities. Computer criminals can access, corrupt, and extract information from individuals or companies. This paper explains the development of a propagation model, which started with a Delphi process. We discuss the preliminary implications for airports of the simulation model built from the Delphi recommendations.
Technical Paper

Wireless Charging for EV/HEV with Prescriptive Analytics, Machine Learning, Cybersecurity and Blockchain Technology: Ongoing and Future Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0790
Due to the rapid development in the technological aspect of the autonomous vehicle (AV), there is a compelling need for research in the field vehicle efficiency and emission reduction without affecting the performance, safety and reliability of the vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) with rechargeable battery has been proved to be a practical solution for the above problem. In order to utilize the maximum capacity of the battery, a proper power management and control mechanism need to be developed such that it does not affect the performance, reliability and safety of vehicle. Different optimization techniques along with deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach are used for the power distribution and management control. The battery-operated electric vehicle can be recharged either by plug-in a wired connection or by the inductive mean (i.e. wirelessly) with the help of the electromagnetic field energy.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security

2019-04-02
2019-01-0129
The caveat to these additional capabilities is issues like cybersecurity, complexity, etc. This paper is an exploration into FuSa and CAVs and will present a systematic approach to understand challenges and propose potential framework, Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security (IVMSS) to handle faults/malfunctions in CAVs, and specifically autonomous systems.
Technical Paper

Secure Vehicular Communication Using Blockchain Technology

2020-04-14
2020-01-0722
Also, all the existing methods for vehicular communication rely on a centralized server which itself invite massive cyber-security threats. These threats and challenges can be addressed by using the Blockchain (BC) technology, where each transaction is logged in a decentralized immutable BC ledger.
Technical Paper

State of the Art Survey on Comparison of Physical Fingerprinting-Based Intrusion Detection Techniques for In-Vehicle Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0721
Controller area network (CAN) is used as a legacy protocol for in-vehicle communication. However, it lacks basic security features such as message authentication, integrity, confidentiality, etc., because the sender information in the message is missing. Hence, it is prone to different attacks like spoofing attacks, denial of service attacks, man in the middle and masquerade attacks. Researchers have proposed various techniques to detect and prevent these attacks, which can be split into two classes: (a) MAC-based techniques and (b) intrusion detection-based techniques. Further, intrusion detection systems can be divided into four categories: (i) message parameter- based, (ii) entropy-based, (iii) machine Learning-based and (iv) fingerprinting-based. This paper details state-of- the-art survey of fingerprinting-based intrusion detection techniques. In addition, the advantages and limitations of different fingerprinting-based intrusion detection techniques methods will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Cyber Security in the Automotive Domain – An Overview

2017-03-28
2017-01-1652
Driven by the growing internet and remote connectivity of automobiles, combined with the emerging trend to automated driving, the importance of security for automotive systems is massively increasing. Although cyber security is a common part of daily routines in the traditional IT domain, necessary security mechanisms are not yet widely applied in the vehicles. At first glance, this may not appear to be a problem as there are lots of solutions from other domains, which potentially could be re-used. But substantial differences compared to an automotive environment have to be taken into account, drastically reducing the possibilities for simple reuse. Our contribution is to address automotive electronics engineers who are confronted with security requirements. Therefore, it will firstly provide some basic knowledge about IT security and subsequently present a selection of automotive specific security use cases.
Technical Paper

Trust-Based Control and Scheduling for UGV Platoon under Cyber Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-1077
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) may encounter difficulties accommodating environmental uncertainties and system degradations during harsh conditions. However, human experience and onboard intelligence can may help mitigate such cases. Unfortunately, human operators have cognition limits when directly supervising multiple UGVs. Ideally, an automated decision aid can be designed that empowers the human operator to supervise the UGVs. In this paper, we consider a connected UGV platoon under cyber attacks that may disrupt safety and degrade performance. An observer-based resilient control strategy is designed to mitigate the effects of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) cyber attacks. In addition, each UGV generates both internal and external evaluations based on the platoons performance metrics. A cloud-based trust-based information management system collects these evaluations to detect abnormal UGV platoon behaviors.
Technical Paper

Securing Connected Vehicles End to End

2014-04-01
2014-01-0300
As vehicles become increasingly connected with the external world, they face a growing range of security vulnerabilities. Researchers, hobbyists, and hackers have compromised security keys used by vehicles' electronic control units (ECUs), modified ECU software, and hacked wireless transmissions from vehicle key fobs and tire monitoring sensors. Malware can infect vehicles through Internet connectivity, onboard diagnostic interfaces, devices tethered wirelessly or physically to the vehicle, malware-infected aftermarket devices or spare parts, and onboard Wi-Fi hotspot. Once vehicles are interconnected, compromised vehicles can also be used to attack the connected transportation system and other vehicles. Securing connected vehicles impose a range of unique new challenges. This paper describes some of these unique challenges and presents an end-to-end cloud-assisted connected vehicle security framework that can address these challenges.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Journal Article

A Novel Assessment and Administration Method of Autonomous Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0708
As a promising strategic industry group that is rapidly evolving around the world, autonomous vehicle is entering a critical phase of commercialization from demonstration to end markets. The global automotive industry and governments are facing new common topics and challenges brought by autonomous vehicle, such as how to test, assess, and administrate the autonomous vehicle to ensure their safe running in real traffic situations and proper interactions with other road users. Starting from the facts that the way to autonomous driving is the process of a robot or a machine taking over driving tasks from a human. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of autonomous vehicle which are different from traditional one, then demonstrates the limitations of the existing certification mechanism and related testing methods when applied to autonomous vehicle.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles

2021-09-13
EPR2021019
Modern automobiles collect around 25 gigabytes of data per hour and autonomous vehicles are expected to generate more than 100 times that number. In comparison, the Apollo Guidance Computer assisting in the moon launches had only a 32-kilobtye hard disk. Without question, the breadth of in-vehicle data has opened new possibilities and challenges. The potential for accessing this data has led many entrepreneurs to claim that data is more valuable than even the vehicle itself. These intrepid data-miners seek to explore business opportunities in predictive maintenance, pay-as-you-drive features, and infrastructure services. Yet, the use of data comes with inherent challenges: accessibility, ownership, security, and privacy. Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Data in Autonomous, Connected, Electric, and Shared Vehicles examines some of the pressing questions on the minds of both industry and consumers. Who owns the data and how can it be used?
Technical Paper

Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0487
Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
Technical Paper

Selftrust - A Practical Approach for Trust Establishment

2020-04-14
2020-01-0720
In recent years, with increase in external connectivity (V2X, telematics, mobile projection, BYOD) the automobile is becoming a target of cyberattacks and intrusions. Any such intrusion reduces customer trust in connected cars and negatively impacts brand image (like the recent Jeep Cherokee hack). To protect against intrusion, several mechanisms are available. These range from a simple secure CAN to a specialized symbiote defense software. A few systems (e.g. V2X) implement detection of an intrusion (defined as a misbehaving entity). However, most of the mechanisms require a system-wide change which adds to the cost and negatively impacts the performance. In this paper, we are proposing a practical and scalable approach to intrusion detection. Some benefits of our approach include use of existing security mechanisms such as TrustZone® and watermarking with little or no impact on cost and performance. In addition, our approach is scalable and does not require any system-wide changes.
Technical Paper

Service Analysis of Autonomous Driving

2020-12-30
2020-01-5194
Autonomous driving represents the ultimate goal of future automobile development. As a collaborative application that integrates vehicles, road infrastructure, network and cloud, autonomous driving business requires a high-degree dynamic cooperation among multiple resources such as data, computing and communications that are distributed throughout the system. In order to meet the anticipated high demand for resources and performance requirements of autonomous driving, and to ensure the safety and comfort of the vehicle users and pedestrians, a top concern of autonomous driving is to understand the system requirements for resources and conduct an in-depth analysis of the autonomous driving business. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the typical business for autonomous driving and establishes an analysis model for five common capabilities, i.e. collection, transmission, intelligent computing, human-machine interaction (HMI), and security.
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
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