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Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearing Test Rig

2021-09-21
2021-01-1218
In this work, a dynamically loaded hydrodynamic journal bearing test rig is developed and introduced. The rig is a novel design, using a hydraulic actuator with fast acting spool valves to apply load to a connecting rod. This force is transmitted through the connecting rod to the large end bearing which is mounted on a spinning shaft. The hydraulic actuator allows for fully variable control and can be used to apply either static load in compression or tension, or dynamic loading to simulate engine operation. A variable speed electric motor controls shaft speed and is synchronized to the hydraulic actuator to accurately simulate loading to represent all four engine strokes. A high precision torque meter enables direct measurements of friction torque, while shaft position is measured via a high precision encoder.
Journal Article

Optimizing Engine Oils for Fuel Economy with Advanced Test Methods

2017-10-08
2017-01-2348
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
Journal Article

Methanol Fuel Testing on Port Fuel Injected Internal-Only EGR, HPL-EGR and D-EGR® Engine Configurations

2017-10-08
2017-01-2285
The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
Journal Article

Engine Oil Fuel Economy Testing - A Tale of Two Tests

2017-03-28
2017-01-0882
Fuel economy is not an absolute attribute, but is highly dependent on the method used to evaluate it. In this work, two test methods are used to evaluate the differences in fuel economy brought about by changes in engine oil viscosity grade and additive chemistry. The two test methods include a chassis dynamometer vehicle test and an engine dynamometer test. The vehicle testing was conducted using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing protocol while the engine dynamometer test uses the proposed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence VIE fuel economy improvement 1 (FEI1) testing methodology. In an effort to improve agreement between the two testing methods, the same model engine was used in both test methods, the General Motors (GM) 3.6 L V6 (used in the 2012 model year Chevrolet™ Malibu™ engine). Within the lubricant industry, this choice of engine is reinforced because it has been selected for use in the proposed Sequence VIE fuel economy test.
Technical Paper

Investigating Potential Light-duty Efficiency Improvements through Simulation of Turbo-compounding and Waste-heat Recovery Systems

2010-10-25
2010-01-2209
Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment.
Technical Paper

Advanced Test Methods Aid in Formulating Engine Oils for Fuel Economy

2016-10-17
2016-01-2269
Chassis dynamometer tests are often used to determine vehicle fuel economy (FE). Since the entire vehicle is used, these methods are generally accepted to be more representative of ‘real-world’ conditions than engine dynamometer tests or small-scale bench tests. Unfortunately, evaluating vehicle fuel economy via this means introduces significant variability that can readily be mitigated with engine dynamometer and bench tests. Recently, improvements to controls and procedures have led to drastically improved test precision in chassis dynamometer testing. Described herein are chassis dynamometer results from five fully formulated engine oils (utilizing improved testing protocols on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HwFET) cycles) which not only show statistically significant FE changes across viscosity grades but also meaningful FE differentiation within a viscosity grade where additive systems have been modified.
Technical Paper

Achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Equipped with Three-Way Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0957
It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Reformate Production in a D-EGR Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0684
Dedicated EGR has shown promise for achieving high efficiency with low emissions [1]. For the present study, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine which was modified to a D-EGR configuration was used to investigate the impact of valve phasing and different injection strategies on the reformate production in the dedicated cylinder. Various levels of positive valve overlap were used in conjunction with different approaches for dedicated cylinder over fueling using PFI and DI fuel systems. Three speed-load combinations were studied, 2000 rpm 4 bar IMEPg, 2000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg, and 4000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg. The primary investigation was conducted to map out the dedicated cylinders' performance at the operating limits of intake and exhaust cam phasing. In this case, the limits were defined as conditions that yielded either no reformate benefit or led to instability in the dedicated cylinder.
Technical Paper

Effect of Micro-Hole Nozzle on Diesel Spray and Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0301
The influence of nozzle geometry on spray and combustion of diesel continues to be a topic of great research interest. One area of promise, injector nozzles with micro-holes (i.e. down to 30 μm), still need further investigation. Reduction of nozzle orifice diameter and increased fuel injection pressure typically promotes air entrainment near-nozzle during start of injection. This leads to better premixing and consequently leaner combustion, hence lowering the formation of soot. Advances in numerical simulation have made it possible to study the effect of different nozzle diameters on the spray and combustion in great detail. In this study, a baseline model was developed for investigating the spray and combustion of diesel fuel at the Spray A condition (nozzle diameter of 90 μm) from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) community.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Lubrication Oil as an Ignition Source in Dual Fuel Combustion Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2699
Dual fuel engines have shown significant potential as high efficiency powerplants. In one example, SwRI® has run a high EGR, dual-fuel engine using gasoline as the main fuel and diesel as the ignition source, achieving high thermal efficiencies with near zero NOx and smoke emissions. However, assuming a tank size that could be reasonably packaged, the diesel fuel tank would need to be refilled often due to the relatively high fraction of diesel required. To reduce the refill interval, SwRI investigated various alternative fluids as potential ignition sources. The fluids included: Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD), Biodiesel, NORPAR (a commercially available mixture of normal paraffins: n-pentadecane (normal C15H32), and n-hexadecane (normal C16H34)) and ashless lubrication oil. Lubrication oil was considered due to its high cetane number (CN) and high viscosity, hence high ignitability.
Technical Paper

Development of High Compression-Ratio Stepped-Lip Piston using Machine Learning

2022-08-30
2022-01-1054
Interaction between a diesel spray and piston plays a significant role in overall combustion and emissions performance in compression-ignition engines. It is essential to design the lip feature respective to spray targeting and the following charge motion for combustion systems that rely on spray-piston interaction strongly, such as a stepped-lip piston. This study used a numerical campaign using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to optimize a stepped-lip combustion system at a 22:1 compression ratio (CR) for both performance and emissions. This is a substantial step up in CR from the stock value of 17:1 for the same engine platform. A machine learning model was used to identify the best combination of features from a design space involving hundreds of potential piston designs and injector nozzle configurations. This study provides a discussion on the general combustion characteristics of the stepped-lip combustion system and the sensitivity of the design parameters.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Measurement of Holistic Powertrain Efficiency in Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0324
Conventional methods for determining automotive powertrain efficiency include (1) component-level testing, such as engine dynamometer, transmission stand or axle stand testing, (2) simulations based on component level test data and (3) vehicle-level testing, such as chassis dynamometer or on-road testing. This paper focuses on vehicle-level testing to show where energy is lost throughout a complete vehicle powertrain. This approach captures all physical effects of a vehicle driving in real-world conditions, including torque converter lockup strategies, transmission shifting, engine control strategies and inherent mechanical efficiency of the components. A modern rear-wheel drive light duty pickup truck was instrumented and tested on a chassis dynamometer. Power was measured at the engine crankshaft output, the rear driveshaft and at the dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Application of Wavelet Analysis in Truck Cab Vibration Signal Processing

2012-09-24
2012-01-2011
The basic principle of wavelet transform is presented and the method of wavelet theory is used in vibration signal analysis of vehicle in this paper. The vibration signals which generated in the locations such as cab floor, engine, transmission, band spring and frame under the usual work condition are measured by the vibration test system. The vibration signals are decomposed with the principle of wavelet decomposition at level six, and eigenvectors of signal energy are gained. According to the correlation coefficient of eigenvectors of signal energy distribution, two signals correlativity is determined. It could be an effective method that identificate the main vibration source.
Technical Paper

Reduced Power Cylinder Friction with Advanced Coatings and Optimized Lubricants

2022-03-29
2022-01-0523
The engine power cylinder is comprised of the piston, piston rings, and cylinder. It accounts for a significant amount of total engine friction within reciprocating, internal combustion engines. Reducing power cylinder friction is key to the development of efficient internal combustion engines. However, isolating individual power cylinder tribocouples for detailed analysis can be challenging. In this work, a new reciprocating liner test rig is developed and introduced. The rig design is novel, using a stationary piston and a reciprocating cylinder liner. Friction is calculated from the force measured in the connecting rod which supports the piston. The rig allows for independent control of peak cylinder pressure, speed, and lubricant temperature. Using the newly developed test rig, several technologies for friction reduction are evaluated and compared.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Electric Motor Cooling Modeling

2022-03-29
2022-01-0724
A comprehensive 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with conjugate heat transfer (CHT) tool was developed in-house for a Tesla Model 3 electric motor. To accurately predict the power loss (heat generation) inside the electric motor, the electromagnetic process was solved to obtain the spatial-dependent power loss in the rotor, stator, and windings. CFD was utilized for simulating the coolant oil flow using the multiphase Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used for simulating the thermal process within the solid domains. These three separate analysis modules (electromagnetic, fluid flow and thermal solid) were coupled strongly to enable two-way interactions. Thermal results obtained from the final converged simulations were compared to the test data obtained from the thermocouple measurements for the two most representative operating points of this e-motor and showed reasonable predictions with similar trend as observed in the test.
Technical Paper

Highway Short-Term Traffic Flow Prediction with Traffic Flows from Multi Entry Stations

2020-12-30
2020-01-5198
As an important component of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), short-term traffic flow prediction is a key step to assess the traffic situation. It provides suggestions for travellers and helps the administrators manage the traffic effectively. Due to the availability of massive traffic data with various features, the data-driven methods have been applied widely to improve the accuracy of traffic flow prediction. However, few previous studies try to capture the information of traffic flows from multi entry stations to forecast the overall tendency of traffic flow. In this paper, we collect data at a highway exit station in Shanghai, split the data according to originating entry stations and predict the corresponding exit station traffic flow from that of the multi entry stations. Firstly, the original records are collected, preprocessed, aggregated and normalized.
Technical Paper

Short-Term Traffic Flow Prediction for Electronic Toll Collection and Manual Toll Collection Charging System Based on Long Short-Term Memory Model

2020-12-30
2020-01-5197
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) plays an important role in smart city, and accurate short-term traffic flow prediction is a significant part. At present, China’s ITS has developed rapidly, and advanced intelligent transportation systems have been built in major cities, such as Shanghai, Shenzhen and so on. With the promotion of mixed Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) and Manual Toll Collection (MTC) charging systems, the features of the traffic flow data have become richer. Traffic data recorded some information for the vehicles entering and exiting highway toll station including time, location, type, mileage, then we can use historical OD data to do traffic flow prediction, predict the corresponding future exit station traffic flow. Furthermore, due to the deep learning network’s ability to model deep complex non-linear relationship in data, researchers have paid more attention to predict traffic flow using deep learning models in recent years.
Technical Paper

Achieving Fast Catalyst Light-Off from a Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Capable of 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1136
Recently conducted work has been funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions for heavy-duty on-road engines. In addition to NOX emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG), CO2 and methane emissions regulations from heavy-duty engines are also becoming more stringent. To achieve low cold-start NOX and methane emissions, the exhaust aftertreatment must be brought up to temperature quickly while keeping proper air-fuel ratio control; however, a balance between catalyst light-off and fuel penalty must be addressed to meet future CO2 emissions regulations. This paper details the work executed to improve catalyst light-off for a natural gas engine with a close-coupled and an underfloor three-way-catalyst while meeting an FTP NOX emission target of 0.02 g/bhp-hr and minimizing any fuel penalty.
Technical Paper

Real Fuel Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-1456
To better understand real fuel effects on LSPI, a matrix was developed to vary certain chemical and physical properties of gasoline. The primary focus of the study was the impact of paraffinic, olefinic, and aromatic components upon LSPI. Secondary goals of this testing were to study the impact of ethanol content and fuel volatility as defined by the T90 temperature. The LSPI rate increased with ethanol content but was insensitive to olefin content. Additionally, increased aromatic content uniformly led to increased LSPI rates. For all blends, lower T90 temperatures resulted in decreased LSPI activity. The correlation between fuel octane (as RON or MON) suggests that octane itself does not play a role; however, the sensitivity of the fuel (RON-MON) does have some correlation with LSPI. Finally, the results of this analysis show that there is no correlation between the laminar flame speed of a fuel and the LSPI rate.
Technical Paper

Farm Tractor Efficiency Gains through Optimized Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Oils

2018-09-10
2018-01-1752
Modern agriculture has evolved dramatically over the past half century. To be profitable, farms need to significantly increase their crop yields, and thus there are amplified demands on farming equipment. Equipment duty cycles have been raised in scope and duration, as the required output of the agricultural industry to sustain a growing population has stimulated the need for further advances in effective productivity gains on the farm. The mainstay mechanical assistant to the farmer, the tractor, has also evolved with the changes in modern agriculture to meet the requirements of these newer tasks. Larger, more capable vehicles have been introduced to help farmers efficiently meet these demands. At the same time, the current generation of tractor diesel engine lubricants has facilitated high levels of performance in the agricultural equipment market for many years. This is a testament to the role modern lubricants play in productivity in such a critical industry.
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