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Technical Paper

Cyber-security for Engine ECUs: Past, Present and Future

2015-09-01
2015-01-1998
In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Mitigating Unknown Cybersecurity Threats in Performance Constrained Electronic Control Units

2018-04-03
2018-01-0016
Traditional Cybersecurity solutions fall short in meeting automotive ECU constraints such as zero false positives, intermittent connectivity, and low performance impact. ...We integrated Autonomous Security on a BeagleBone Black (BBB) system to evaluate the feasibility of mitigating Cybersecurity risks against potential threats. We identified key metrics that should be measured, such as level of security, ease of integration and system performance impact.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Cybersecurity Based on Dedicated Security Hardware and ECDH Algorithm

2017-09-23
2017-01-2005
Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Dedicated security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. ...For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-bit HSM’s AES calculating speed is 25 times of 32-bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity. After comparing two existing methods that realize secure CAN communication, A Modified SECURE CAN scheme is proposed, and differences of the three schemes are analyzed.
Technical Paper

THARA - A Framework to Align the Functional Safety and Security Process in Automotive Domain

2021-04-06
2021-01-0148
The underlying systems are susceptible to safety and cybersecurity attacks as the involved ECUs are interconnected. The security attacks can lead to disrupting the safe operation of the vehicle while causing injury to the passengers. ...Consequently, the functional safety requirements and cybersecurity requirements can be aligned with each other. In this paper, a case study of the application of the THARA framework is presented through the risk analysis of safety and security threats applicable to the rear-view camera (RVC) feature of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

EncryptionS Role in Vehicle Information Security

1998-10-19
98C044
A broad range of information is being delivered to and used within modern vehicles. Information-based applications are becoming more highly integrated into the automobile. Security services are necessary to provide appropriate protection for this information. Encryption, digital signature, and hash functionalities enable information security services such as confidentiality, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation. However, the consumer of in-vehicle information services will not accept security services that introduce any inconvenience to their activities. This paper will discuss various security service methods and security management systems and propose methods to integrate these services acceptably into vehicle-based applications.
Technical Paper

Zero-Day Attack Defenses and Test Framework for Connected Mobility ECUs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0141
Recent developments in the commercialization of mobility services have brought unprecedented connectivity to the automotive sector. While the adoption of connected features provides significant benefits to vehicle owners, adversaries may leverage zero-day attacks to target the expanded attack surface and make unauthorized access to sensitive data. Protecting new generations of automotive controllers against malicious intrusions requires solutions that do not depend on conventional countermeasures, which often fall short when pitted against sophisticated exploitation attempts. In this paper, we describe some of the latent risks in current automotive systems along with a well-engineered multi-layer defense strategy. Further, we introduce a novel and comprehensive attack and performance test framework which considers state-of-the-art memory corruption attacks, countermeasures and evaluation methods.
Technical Paper

Securing Connected Vehicles End to End

2014-04-01
2014-01-0300
As vehicles become increasingly connected with the external world, they face a growing range of security vulnerabilities. Researchers, hobbyists, and hackers have compromised security keys used by vehicles' electronic control units (ECUs), modified ECU software, and hacked wireless transmissions from vehicle key fobs and tire monitoring sensors. Malware can infect vehicles through Internet connectivity, onboard diagnostic interfaces, devices tethered wirelessly or physically to the vehicle, malware-infected aftermarket devices or spare parts, and onboard Wi-Fi hotspot. Once vehicles are interconnected, compromised vehicles can also be used to attack the connected transportation system and other vehicles. Securing connected vehicles impose a range of unique new challenges. This paper describes some of these unique challenges and presents an end-to-end cloud-assisted connected vehicle security framework that can address these challenges.
Technical Paper

Proposal of HILS-Based In-Vehicle Network Security Verification Environment

2018-04-03
2018-01-0013
We propose a security-testing framework to analyze attack feasibilities for automotive control software by integrating model-based development with model checking techniques. Many studies have pointed out the vulnerabilities in the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol, which is widely used in in-vehicle network systems. However, many security attacks on automobiles did not explicitly consider the transmission timing of CAN packets to realize vulnerabilities. Additionally, in terms of security testing for automobiles, most existing studies have only focused on the generation of the testing packets to realize vulnerabilities, but they did not consider the timing of invoking a security testing. Therefore, we focus on the transmit timing of CAN packets to realize vulnerabilities. In our experiments, we have demonstrated the classification of feasible attacks at the early development phase by integrating the model checking techniques into a virtualized environment.
Technical Paper

The Study of Secure CAN Communication for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1658
Cyber security is becoming increasingly critical in the car industry. Not only the entry points to the external world in the car need to be protected against potential attack, but also the on-board communication in the car require to be protected against attackers who may try to send unauthorized CAN messages. However, the current CAN network was not designed with security in mind. As a result, the extra measures have to be taken to address the key security properties of the secure CAN communication, including data integrity, authenticity, confidentiality and freshness. While integrity and authenticity can be achieved by using a relatively straightforward algorithms such as CMAC (Cipher-based Message Authentication Code) and Confidentiality can be handled by a symmetric encryption algorithm like AES128 (128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard), it has been recognized to be more challenging to achieve the freshness of CAN message.
Technical Paper

Integrating STPA into ISO 26262 Process for Requirement Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-0058
Developing requirements for automotive electric/electronic systems is challenging, as those systems become increasingly software-intensive. Designs must account for unintended interactions among software features, combined with unforeseen environmental factors. In addition, engineers have to iteratively make architectural tradeoffs and assign responsibilities to each component in the system to accommodate new safety requirements as they are revealed. ISO 26262 is an industry standard for the functional safety of automotive electric/electronic systems. It specifies various processes and procedures for ensuring functional safety, but does not limit the methods that can be used for hazard and safety analysis. System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a new technique for hazard analysis, in the sense that hazards are caused by unsafe interactions between components (including humans) as well as component failures and faults.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) for Efficient ISO 26262 Compliance

2021-04-06
2021-01-0067
There has been a significant increase - both in the content of electronics and software in vehicles as well as in recalls attributed to these components and systems. The advanced features, including the onset of autonomous vehicles accompanied by millions of lines of code in software have exponentially increased the complexity of vehicle systems and decreased effectiveness of many of the safety analysis techniques being used to identify hazards and safety requirements - for example, FMEA, FTA, ETA, etc.- which were invented decades before the existence of complexities of such magnitude. This paper examines a new hazard identification technique formalized by Nancy G Leveson of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA in her book “Engineering a Safer World” and further elaborated in the STPA Handbook co-authored with John P Thomas in March 2018.
Technical Paper

A Domain-Centralized Automotive Powertrain E/E Architecture

2021-04-06
2021-01-0786
This paper proposes a domain-centralized powertrain E/E (electrical and/or electronic) architecture for all-electric vehicles that features: a powerful master controller (domain controller) that implements most of the functionality of the domain; a set of smart actuators for electric motor(s), HV (High Voltage) battery pack, and thermal management; and a gateway that routes all hardware signals, including digital and analog I/O, and field bus signals between the domain controller and the rest of the vehicle that is outside of the domain. Major functional safety aspects of the architecture are presented and a safety architecture is proposed. The work represents an early E/E architecture proposal. In particular, detailed partitioning of software components over the domain’s Electronic Control Units (ECUs) has not been determined yet; instead, potential partitioning schemes are discussed.
Technical Paper

CAN Crypto FPGA Chip to Secure Data Transmitted Through CAN FD Bus Using AES-128 and SHA-1 Algorithms with A Symmetric Key

2017-03-28
2017-01-1612
Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
Technical Paper

Application of Suspend Mode to Automotive ECUs

2018-04-03
2018-01-0021
To achieve high robustness and quality, automotive ECUs must initialize from low-power states as quickly as possible. However, microprocessor and memory advances have failed to keep pace with software image size growth in complex ECUs such as in Infotainment and Telematics. Loading the boot image from non-volatile storage to RAM and initializing the software can take a very long time to show the first screen and result in sluggish performance for a significant time thereafter which both degrade customer perceived quality. Designers of mobile devices such as portable phones, laptops, and tablets address this problem using Suspend mode whereby the main processor and peripheral devices are powered down during periods of inactivity, but memory contents are preserved by a small “self-refresh” current. When the device is turned back “on”, fully initialized memory content allows the system to initialize nearly instantaneously.
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