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Technical Paper

Information Security Risk Management of Vehicles

The results of this work is allowed to identify a number of cybersecurity threats of the automated security-critical automotive systems, which reduces the efficiency of operation, road safety and system safety. ...According to the evaluating criterion of board electronics, the presence of poorly-protected communication channels, the 75% of the researched modern vehicles do not meet the minimum requirements of cybersecurity due to the danger of external blocking of vital systems. The revealed vulnerabilities of the security-critical automotive systems lead to the necessity of developing methods for mechanical and electronic protection of the modern vehicle. ...The law of normal distribution of the mid-points of the expert evaluation of the cyber-security of a modern vehicle has been determined. Based on the system approach, ranking of the main cybersecurity treats is performed.
Technical Paper

Hypervisor Implementation in Vehicle Networks

The hypervisor offers many benefits to the vehicle architecture, both operationally and with cybersecurity. The proposed mitigant provides the structure to partition the various VMs. This allows for the different functions to be managed within their own distinct VM. ...While the cybersecurity applications are numerous, there are also the operational benefits. The hypervisor is designed to not only manage the VMs, but also to increase the efficiency of these via resource management.
Technical Paper

Optimizing CAN Bus Security with In-Place Cryptography

In-vehicle networks used for inter-ECU communication, most commonly the CAN bus, were not designed with cybersecurity in mind, and as a result, communication by corrupt devices connected to the bus is not authenticated.
Technical Paper

Research on CAN Network Security Aspects and Intrusion Detection Design

With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
Technical Paper

Proposal of HILS-Based In-Vehicle Network Security Verification Environment

We propose a security-testing framework to analyze attack feasibilities for automotive control software by integrating model-based development with model checking techniques. Many studies have pointed out the vulnerabilities in the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol, which is widely used in in-vehicle network systems. However, many security attacks on automobiles did not explicitly consider the transmission timing of CAN packets to realize vulnerabilities. Additionally, in terms of security testing for automobiles, most existing studies have only focused on the generation of the testing packets to realize vulnerabilities, but they did not consider the timing of invoking a security testing. Therefore, we focus on the transmit timing of CAN packets to realize vulnerabilities. In our experiments, we have demonstrated the classification of feasible attacks at the early development phase by integrating the model checking techniques into a virtualized environment.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
Journal Article

Safe and Secure Software Updates Over The Air for Electronic Brake Control Systems

Vehicle manufacturers are suffering from increasing expenses for fixing software issues. This fact is mainly driving their desire to use mobile communication channels for doing Software Updates Over The Air (SOTA). Software updates today are typically done at vehicle service stations by connecting the vehicles’ electronic network via the On Board Diagnostic (OBD) interface to a service computer. These operations are done under the control of trained technicians. SOTA means that the update process must get handled by the driver. Two critical aspects need to get considered when doing SOTA at Electronic Brake Control (EBC) systems. Both will determine the acceptance of SOTA by legal authorities and by the passengers: The safety and security of the vehicle The availability of the vehicle for the passengers The security aspect includes the necessity to protect the vehicle and the manufacturers IP from unwanted attacks.
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.
Technical Paper

Connectivity in 2 Wheelers: Opportunities and Challenges

Mobility is undergoing a “horses to cars”-sized shift that will reverberate across business and society for generations. Future of Mobility is mainly driven by 4 main pillars viz. Connected, Electrified, Automated and Shared Driving. With advancement in Communication Technology supplemented by huge customer base, Connectivity has proven to deliver better Services to the End-user. Connected Mobility is going to be the next Big Thing in the Mobility Arena. In this paper, we will try to qualitatively explore what Connected Mobility is all about and what it has to offer in terms of - Opportunities on one side as well as new challenges that were never witnessed in the realm of Mobility in the Past, with focus on the 2 wheeler segment. This paper focuses on Opportunities in terms of Location Based services, Vehicle Management, Data Analytics, Infotainment and possible Business scenarios and Models as well as challenges in Terms of Security and Data Ownership
Technical Paper

Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2

Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Sensors for Automated Road Vehicles

This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the new generation of sensors designed for vehicles capable of automated driving. Four main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, specifying a standardized terminology and taxonomy to be used for discussing the sensors required by automated vehicles. Second, generating standardized tests and procedures for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, creating a standardized set of tools and methods to ensure the security, robustness, and integrity of data collected by such sensors. The fourth issue, regarding the ownership and privacy of data collected by automated vehicle sensors, is considered only briefly here since its scope far exceeds the technical issues that are the primary focus of the present report. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Technical Paper

Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation - An Academia Perspective

This paper and the associated lecture present an overview of technology trends and of market and business opportunities created by technology, as well as of the challenges posed by environmental and economic considerations. Commercial vehicles are one of the engines of our economy. Moving goods and people efficiently and economically is a key to continued industrial development and to strong employment. Trucks are responsible for nearly 70% of the movement of goods in the USA (by value) and represent approximately 300 billion of the 3.21 trillion annual vehicle miles travelled by all vehicles in the USA while public transit enables mobility and access to jobs for millions of people, with over 10 billion trips annually in the USA creating and sustaining employment opportunities.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics in Automated Vehicle Data Sharing for Verification and Validation Purposes

Unsettled Topics in Automated Vehicle Data Sharing for Verification and Validation Purposes discusses the unsettled issue of sharing the terabytes of driving data generated by Automated Vehicles (AVs) on a daily basis. Perception engineers use these large datasets to analyze and model the automated driving systems (ADS) that will eventually be integrated into future “self-driving” vehicles. However, the current industry practices of collecting data by driving on public roads to understand real-world scenarios is not practical and will be unlikely to lead to safe deployment of this technology anytime soon. Estimates show that it could take 400 years for a fleet of 100 AVs to drive enough miles to prove that they are as safe as human drivers.
Research Report

Unsettled Impacts of Integrating Automated Electric Vehicles into a Mobility-as-a-Service Ecosystem and Effects on Traditional Transportation and Ownership

The current business model of the automotive industry is based on individual car ownership, yet new ridesharing companies such as Uber and Lyft are well capitalized to invest in large, commercially operated, on-demand mobility service vehicle fleets. Car manufacturers like Tesla want to incorporate personal car owners into part-time fleet operation by utilizing the company’s fleet service. These robotaxi fleets can be operated profitably when the technology works in a reliable manner and regulators allow driverless operation. Although Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) models of private and commercial vehicle fleets can complement public transportation models, they may contribute to lower public transportation ridership and thus higher subsidies per ride. This can lead to inefficiencies in the utilization of existing public transportation infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Buckendale Lecture Series: Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation—A Government Perspective

Transportation departments are under-going a dramatic transformation, shifting from organizations focused primarily on building roads to a focus on mobility for all users. The transformation is the result of rapidly advancing autonomous vehicle technology and personal telecommunication technology. These technologies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve safety, mobility, and economic opportunity for society and industry. Future generations of engineers and other transportation professionals have the opportunity to be part of that societal change. This paper will focus on the technologies state DOT’s and the private sector are researching, developing, and deploying to promote the future of mobility and improved efficiency for commercial trucking through advancements in truck platooning, self-driving long-haul trucking, and automated last mile distribution networks.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Balancing Virtual, Closed-Course, and Public-Road Testing of Automated Driving Systems

This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of determining the optimal balance for testing automated driving systems (ADS). Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, determining what kind of testing an ADS needs before it is ready to go on the road. Second, the current, optimal, and realistic balance of simulation testing and real-world testing. Third, the challenges of sharing data in the industry. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies. The three technical issues identified in this report should be discussed in greater depth with the aims of, first, clarifying the scope of the industry-wide alignment needed; second, prioritizing the issues requiring resolution; and, third, creating a plan to generate the necessary frameworks, practices, and protocols.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Technical Paper

Dyno-in-the-Loop: An Innovative Hardware-in-the-Loop Development and Testing Platform for Emerging Mobility Technologies

Today’s transportation is quickly transforming with the nascent advent of connectivity, automation, shared-mobility, and electrification. These technologies will not only affect our safety and mobility, but also our energy consumption, and environment. As a result, it is of unprecedented importance to understand the overall system impacts due to the introduction of these emerging technologies and concepts. Existing modeling tools are not able to effectively capture the implications of these technologies, not to mention accurately and reliably evaluating their effectiveness with a reasonable scope. To address these gaps, a dynamometer-in-the-loop (DiL) development and testing approach is proposed which integrates test vehicle(s), chassis dynamometer, and high fidelity traffic simulation tools, in order to achieve a balance between the model accuracy and scalability of environmental analysis for the next generation of transportation systems.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation

This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk. Second, developing a universal simulation model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.