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Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Technical Paper

Cyber-security for Engine ECUs: Past, Present and Future

2015-09-01
2015-01-1998
In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Hypervisor Implementation in Vehicle Networks

2020-04-14
2020-01-1334
The hypervisor offers many benefits to the vehicle architecture, both operationally and with cybersecurity. The proposed mitigant provides the structure to partition the various VMs. This allows for the different functions to be managed within their own distinct VM. ...While the cybersecurity applications are numerous, there are also the operational benefits. The hypervisor is designed to not only manage the VMs, but also to increase the efficiency of these via resource management.
Technical Paper

Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0020
Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Vehicular Networks and its Main Security Issues

2014-04-01
2014-01-0336
Vehicular Network is an emerging and developing technology to improve traffic management and safety issues, and enable a wide range of value-added services such as collision warning/avoidance. Many applications have been designed to provide safety and comfort for passengers. This technology is a prolific area for attackers who will attempt to challenge the network with their malicious or rational attacks. In this paper we elaborate what a vehicular network is, different kinds of communication in this field, main mechanism and related parts and how vehicular networks work then we introduce some of its applications. After primary familiarity with this system we investigate to different type of attacker, more important security issues, How to secure vehicular networks (security requirements and some tools and methods to achieve secure vehicular networks), difficulties and providing viable security solutions, and at the end briefly explanation of related standards.
Technical Paper

Challenges in the Regulatory Framework of Automated Driving

2019-01-09
2019-26-0097
Automated Driving (AD) is foreseen to be one of the major social and technological challenges in the coming years. Many manufacturers are developing new models with cutting-edge functionalities, which are not included in the scope of the current regulatory framework. Apart from demonstrating their know-how and expertise about AD, their willingness to sell their AD models in the European market is accelerating the rule-making system. However, which is the roadmap for the European regulatory framework? Policy makers and regulatory bodies are pushing their boundaries at all levels (national and international) in order to introduce modifications in existing regulations. These regulations will enable the introduction of these new functionalities into the market. Without decreasing the standards of safety and security, the implementation of a clear and harmonized regulatory framework and approval process is extremely needed.
Research Report

Unsettled Technology Opportunities for Vehicle Health Management and the Role for Health-Ready Components

2020-03-17
EPR2020003
Game-changing opportunities abound for the application of vehicle health management (VHM) across multiple transportation-related sectors, but key unresolved issues continue to impede progress. VHM technology is based upon the broader field of advanced analytics. Much of traditional analytics efforts to date have been largely descriptive in nature and offer somewhat limited value for large-scale enterprises. Analytics technology becomes increasingly valuable when it offers predictive results or, even better, prescriptive results, which can be used to identify specific courses of action. It is this focus on action which takes analytics to a higher level of impact, and which imbues it with the potential to materially impact the success of the enterprise. Artificial intelligence (AI), specifically machine learning technology, shows future promise in the VHM space, but it is not currently adequate by itself for high-accuracy analytics.
Research Report

Unsettled Impacts of Integrating Automated Electric Vehicles into a Mobility-as-a-Service Ecosystem and Effects on Traditional Transportation and Ownership

2019-12-20
EPR2019004
The current business model of the automotive industry is based on individual car ownership, yet new ridesharing companies such as Uber and Lyft are well capitalized to invest in large, commercially operated, on-demand mobility service vehicle fleets. Car manufacturers like Tesla want to incorporate personal car owners into part-time fleet operation by utilizing the company’s fleet service. These robotaxi fleets can be operated profitably when the technology works in a reliable manner and regulators allow driverless operation. Although Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) models of private and commercial vehicle fleets can complement public transportation models, they may contribute to lower public transportation ridership and thus higher subsidies per ride. This can lead to inefficiencies in the utilization of existing public transportation infrastructure.
Technical Paper

Hardware/Software Co-Design of an Automotive Embedded Firewall

2017-03-28
2017-01-1659
The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
Technical Paper

A Blockchain-Backed Database for Qualified Parts

2019-03-19
2019-01-1343
Certain standard parts in the aerospace industry require qualification as a prerequisite to manufacturing, signifying that the manufacturer’s capacity to produce parts consistent with the performance specifications has been audited by a neutral third-party auditor, key customer, and/or group of customers. In at least some cases, a certifying authority provides manufacturers with certificates of qualification which they can then present to prospective customers, and/or lists qualified suppliers in a Qualified Parts List or Qualified Supplier List available from that qualification authority. If this list is in an infrequently updated and/or inconsistently styled format as might be found in a print or PDF document, potential customers wishing to integrate qualification information into their supplier tracking systems must use a potentially error-prone manual process that could lead to later reliance on out-of-date or even forged data.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Development Ecosystem

2020-03-17
EPR2020004
With over 100 years of operation, the current automobile industry has settled into an equilibrium with the development of methodologies, regulations, and processes for improving safety. In addition, a nearly $2-trillion market operates in the automotive ecosystem with connections into fields ranging from insurance to advertising. Enabling this ecosystem is a well-honed, tiered supply chain and an established development environment. Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology is a leap forward for the existing automotive industry; now the automobile is expected to manage perception and decision-making tasks. The safety technologies associated with these tasks were presented in an earlier SAE EDGE™ Research Report, “Unsettled Technology Areas in Autonomous Vehicle Test and Validation.”
Journal Article

Chip and Board Level Digital Forensics of Cummins Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

2020-04-14
2020-01-1326
Crashes involving Cummins powered heavy vehicles can damage the electronic control module (ECM) containing heavy vehicle event data recorder (HVEDR) records. When ECMs are broken and data cannot be extracted using vehicle diagnostics tools, more invasive and low-level techniques are needed to forensically preserve and decode HVEDR data. A technique for extracting non-volatile memory contents using non-destructive board level techniques through the available in-circuit debugging port is presented. Additional chip level data extraction techniques can also provide access to the HVEDR data. Once the data is obtained and preserved in a forensically sound manner, the binary record is decoded to reveal typical HVDER data like engine speed, vehicle speed, accelerator pedal position, and other status data. The memory contents from the ECM can be written to a surrogate and decoded with traditional maintenance and diagnostic software.
Technical Paper

Modelify: Semi-Automatic Conversion of Control Systems C Code to Simulink Models

2016-04-05
2016-01-0020
Over the last decade, the automotive industry has embraced model-based development for control systems. Many of these companies have chosen Simulink from MathWorks to design and simulate these models. However, a remaining issue is the fact that many control systems were initially written in C and are still being used. Some companies have attempted to manually convert these C systems to Simulink models but have found this method to be too costly, error-prone, and time consuming. EnSoft decided to tackle this problem by providing a semi-automated conversion using our Atlas for C tool. Atlas is a tool that maps software and creates a relation map for all parts of the program. It then offers the developer tools to query and visualize this graph. We have developed Modelify, a tool built on this framework that performs the necessary queries on a C project and creates equivalent Simulink models and subsystems.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

2019-04-02
2019-01-0118
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem

2019-11-05
EPR2019005
Over the last 100 years, the automobile has become integrated in a fundamental way into the broader economy. A broad and deep ecosystem has emerged, and critical components of this ecosystem include insurance, after-market services, automobile retail sales, automobile lending, energy suppliers (e.g., gas stations), medical services, advertising, lawyers, banking, public planners, and law enforcement. These components - which together represent almost $2 trillion of the U.S. economy - are in equilibrium based on the current capabilities of automotive technology. However, the advent of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and technologies like electrification have the potential to significantly disrupt the automotive ecosystem. The critical cog governing the rate and pace of this shift is the management of the test and verification of AVs.
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