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Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming ISO/SAE 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in UNECE WP.29, it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Technical Paper

Cyber-security for Engine ECUs: Past, Present and Future

2015-09-01
2015-01-1998
In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Mitigating Unknown Cybersecurity Threats in Performance Constrained Electronic Control Units

2018-04-03
2018-01-0016
Traditional Cybersecurity solutions fall short in meeting automotive ECU constraints such as zero false positives, intermittent connectivity, and low performance impact. ...We integrated Autonomous Security on a BeagleBone Black (BBB) system to evaluate the feasibility of mitigating Cybersecurity risks against potential threats. We identified key metrics that should be measured, such as level of security, ease of integration and system performance impact.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Cybersecurity Based on Dedicated Security Hardware and ECDH Algorithm

2017-09-23
2017-01-2005
Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Dedicated security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. ...For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-bit HSM’s AES calculating speed is 25 times of 32-bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity. After comparing two existing methods that realize secure CAN communication, A Modified SECURE CAN scheme is proposed, and differences of the three schemes are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Threat/Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment: A Framework to Align the Functional Safety and Security Process in Automotive Domain

2021-04-06
2021-01-0148
The underlying systems are susceptible to safety and cybersecurity attacks as the involved ECUs are interconnected. The security attacks can lead to disrupting the safe operation of the vehicle while causing injury to the passengers. ...Consequently, the functional safety requirements and cybersecurity requirements can be aligned with each other. In this article, a case study of the application of the THARA framework is presented through the risk analysis of safety and security threats applicable to the rearview camera (RVC) feature of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimizing CAN Bus Security with In-Place Cryptography

2019-01-16
2019-01-0098
In-vehicle networks used for inter-ECU communication, most commonly the CAN bus, were not designed with cybersecurity in mind, and as a result, communication by corrupt devices connected to the bus is not authenticated.
Technical Paper

Securing Connected Vehicles End to End

2014-04-01
2014-01-0300
As vehicles become increasingly connected with the external world, they face a growing range of security vulnerabilities. Researchers, hobbyists, and hackers have compromised security keys used by vehicles' electronic control units (ECUs), modified ECU software, and hacked wireless transmissions from vehicle key fobs and tire monitoring sensors. Malware can infect vehicles through Internet connectivity, onboard diagnostic interfaces, devices tethered wirelessly or physically to the vehicle, malware-infected aftermarket devices or spare parts, and onboard Wi-Fi hotspot. Once vehicles are interconnected, compromised vehicles can also be used to attack the connected transportation system and other vehicles. Securing connected vehicles impose a range of unique new challenges. This paper describes some of these unique challenges and presents an end-to-end cloud-assisted connected vehicle security framework that can address these challenges.
Journal Article

Zero-Day Attack Defenses and Test Framework for Connected Mobility ECUs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0141
Recent developments in the commercialization of mobility services have brought unprecedented connectivity to the automotive sector. While the adoption of connected features provides significant benefits to vehicle owners, adversaries may leverage zero-day attacks to target the expanded attack surface and make unauthorized access to sensitive data. Protecting new generations of automotive controllers against malicious intrusions requires solutions that do not depend on conventional countermeasures, which often fall short when pitted against sophisticated exploitation attempts. In this paper, we describe some of the latent risks in current automotive systems along with a well-engineered multi-layer defense strategy. Further, we introduce a novel and comprehensive attack and performance test framework which considers state-of-the-art memory corruption attacks, countermeasures and evaluation methods.
Technical Paper

The Study of Secure CAN Communication for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1658
Cyber security is becoming increasingly critical in the car industry. Not only the entry points to the external world in the car need to be protected against potential attack, but also the on-board communication in the car require to be protected against attackers who may try to send unauthorized CAN messages. However, the current CAN network was not designed with security in mind. As a result, the extra measures have to be taken to address the key security properties of the secure CAN communication, including data integrity, authenticity, confidentiality and freshness. While integrity and authenticity can be achieved by using a relatively straightforward algorithms such as CMAC (Cipher-based Message Authentication Code) and Confidentiality can be handled by a symmetric encryption algorithm like AES128 (128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard), it has been recognized to be more challenging to achieve the freshness of CAN message.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Oriented Distributed Test Strategy for FOTA/SOTA Enabled Edge Device

2021-09-22
2021-26-0476
In order to enhance customer experience [5] and to reduce time to market, the manufacturers are constantly in need of being able to update software/firmware of the Electronic Control units (ECU) when the vehicle is in field operations. The updates could be a bug fix or a new feature release. Until the recent years, the updation of software/firmware used to be done using a physical hardwired connection to the Vehicle in a workshop. However, with the element of connectivity being added to the vehicle, the updation of software can be done remotely and wirelessly over the air using a feature called Flash over the air (FOTA) [2] and Software over the air (SOTA) [2]. In order to safeguard the telematics [3] ECU from tampering or hacking, the manufacturers are doing away with the ports on the underlying hardware through which manual flashing used to be done. This means that, the only option available to flash or update the ECU is using FOTA/SOTA.
Journal Article

Towards a Cyber Assurance Testbed for Heavy Vehicle Electronic Controls

2016-09-27
2016-01-8142
Cyber assurance of heavy trucks is a major concern with new designs as well as with supporting legacy systems. Many cyber security experts and analysts are used to working with traditional information technology (IT) networks and are familiar with a set of technologies that may not be directly useful in the commercial vehicle sector. To help connect security researchers to heavy trucks, a remotely accessible testbed has been prototyped for experimentation with security methodologies and techniques to evaluate and improve on existing technologies, as well as developing domain-specific technologies. The testbed relies on embedded Linux-based node controllers that can simulate the sensor inputs to various heavy vehicle electronic control units (ECUs). The node controller also monitors and affects the flow of network information between the ECUs and the vehicle communications backbone.
Technical Paper

Deep Learning Based Real Time Vulnerability Fixes Verification Mechanism for Automotive Firmware/Software

2021-04-06
2021-01-0183
Software vulnerability management is one of the most critical and crucial security techniques, which analyzes the automotive software/firmware across the digital cockpit, ADAS, V2X, etc. domains for vulnerabilities, and provides security patches for the concerned Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The process of automotive SW/FW vulnerability management system between the OEMs and vendors happen through a channel of fixing a certain number of vulnerabilities by 1st tier supplier which needs to be verified in front of OEMs for the fixed number and type of patches in there deliverable SW/FW. The gap of verification between for the fixed patches between the OEMs and 1st tier supplier requires a reliable human independent intelligent technique to have a trustworthiness of verification.
Technical Paper

A Controller Area Network Bus Identity Authentication Method Based on Hash Algorithm

2021-07-14
2021-01-5077
With the development of vehicle intelligence and the Internet of Vehicles, how to protect the safety of the vehicle network system has become a focus issue that needs to be solved urgently. The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus is currently a very widely used vehicle-mounted bus, and its security largely determines the degree of vehicle-mounted information security. The CAN bus lacks adequate protection mechanisms and is vulnerable to external attacks such as replay attacks, modifying attacks, and so on. On the basis of the existing work, this paper proposes an authentication method that combines Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-SHA256 and Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) algorithms. This method is based on dynamic identity authentication in challenge/response made and combined with the characteristics of the CAN bus itself as it achieves the identity authentication between the gateway and multiple electronic control units (ECUs).
Technical Paper

Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0020
Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Vehicular Networks and its Main Security Issues

2014-04-01
2014-01-0336
Vehicular Network is an emerging and developing technology to improve traffic management and safety issues, and enable a wide range of value-added services such as collision warning/avoidance. Many applications have been designed to provide safety and comfort for passengers. This technology is a prolific area for attackers who will attempt to challenge the network with their malicious or rational attacks. In this paper we elaborate what a vehicular network is, different kinds of communication in this field, main mechanism and related parts and how vehicular networks work then we introduce some of its applications. After primary familiarity with this system we investigate to different type of attacker, more important security issues, How to secure vehicular networks (security requirements and some tools and methods to achieve secure vehicular networks), difficulties and providing viable security solutions, and at the end briefly explanation of related standards.
Technical Paper

Challenges in the Regulatory Framework of Automated Driving

2019-01-09
2019-26-0097
Automated Driving (AD) is foreseen to be one of the major social and technological challenges in the coming years. Many manufacturers are developing new models with cutting-edge functionalities, which are not included in the scope of the current regulatory framework. Apart from demonstrating their know-how and expertise about AD, their willingness to sell their AD models in the European market is accelerating the rule-making system. However, which is the roadmap for the European regulatory framework? Policy makers and regulatory bodies are pushing their boundaries at all levels (national and international) in order to introduce modifications in existing regulations. These regulations will enable the introduction of these new functionalities into the market. Without decreasing the standards of safety and security, the implementation of a clear and harmonized regulatory framework and approval process is extremely needed.
Technical Paper

Hardware/Software Co-Design of an Automotive Embedded Firewall

2017-03-28
2017-01-1659
The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
Technical Paper

Towards Establishing Continuous-X Pipeline Using Modular Software-in-the-Loop Test Environments

2021-09-22
2021-26-0412
Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) test environments are the ideal virtual platforms for enabling continuous-development, -integration, -testing -delivery or -deployment commonly referred as Continuous-X (CX) of the complex functionalities in the current automotive industry. This trend especially is contributed by several factors such as the industry wide standardization of the model exchange formats, interfaces as well as architecture definitions. The approach of frontloading software testing with SiL test environments is predominantly advocated as well as already adopted by various Automotive OEMs, thereby the demand for innovating applicable methods is increasing. However, prominent usage of the existing monolithic architecture for interaction of various elements in the SiL environment, without regarding the separation between functional and non-functional test scope, is reducing the usability and thus limiting significantly the cost saving potential of CX with SiL.
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