Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Cyber-security for Engine ECUs: Past, Present and Future

2015-09-01
2015-01-1998
In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Cybersecurity Based on Dedicated Security Hardware and ECDH Algorithm

2017-09-23
2017-01-2005
Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Dedicated security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. ...For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-bit HSM’s AES calculating speed is 25 times of 32-bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity. After comparing two existing methods that realize secure CAN communication, A Modified SECURE CAN scheme is proposed, and differences of the three schemes are analyzed.
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases.
Technical Paper

Securing Connected Vehicles End to End

2014-04-01
2014-01-0300
As vehicles become increasingly connected with the external world, they face a growing range of security vulnerabilities. Researchers, hobbyists, and hackers have compromised security keys used by vehicles' electronic control units (ECUs), modified ECU software, and hacked wireless transmissions from vehicle key fobs and tire monitoring sensors. Malware can infect vehicles through Internet connectivity, onboard diagnostic interfaces, devices tethered wirelessly or physically to the vehicle, malware-infected aftermarket devices or spare parts, and onboard Wi-Fi hotspot. Once vehicles are interconnected, compromised vehicles can also be used to attack the connected transportation system and other vehicles. Securing connected vehicles impose a range of unique new challenges. This paper describes some of these unique challenges and presents an end-to-end cloud-assisted connected vehicle security framework that can address these challenges.
Technical Paper

The Study of Secure CAN Communication for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1658
Cyber security is becoming increasingly critical in the car industry. Not only the entry points to the external world in the car need to be protected against potential attack, but also the on-board communication in the car require to be protected against attackers who may try to send unauthorized CAN messages. However, the current CAN network was not designed with security in mind. As a result, the extra measures have to be taken to address the key security properties of the secure CAN communication, including data integrity, authenticity, confidentiality and freshness. While integrity and authenticity can be achieved by using a relatively straightforward algorithms such as CMAC (Cipher-based Message Authentication Code) and Confidentiality can be handled by a symmetric encryption algorithm like AES128 (128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard), it has been recognized to be more challenging to achieve the freshness of CAN message.
Technical Paper

Safety Development Trend of the Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0085
Automotive safety is always the focus of consumers, the selling point of products, the focus of technology. In order to achieve automatic driving, interconnection with the outside world, human-automatic system interaction, the security connotation of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV) changes: information security is the basis of its security. Functional safety ensures that the system is operating properly. Behavioral safety guarantees a secure interaction between people and vehicles. Passive security should not be weakened, but should be strengthened based on new constraints. In terms of information safety, the threshold for attacking cloud, pipe, and vehicle information should be raised to ensure that ICV system does not fail due to malicious attacks. The cloud is divided into three cloud platforms according to functions: ICVs private cloud, TSP cloud, public cloud.
Technical Paper

Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0020
Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Vehicular Networks and its Main Security Issues

2014-04-01
2014-01-0336
Vehicular Network is an emerging and developing technology to improve traffic management and safety issues, and enable a wide range of value-added services such as collision warning/avoidance. Many applications have been designed to provide safety and comfort for passengers. This technology is a prolific area for attackers who will attempt to challenge the network with their malicious or rational attacks. In this paper we elaborate what a vehicular network is, different kinds of communication in this field, main mechanism and related parts and how vehicular networks work then we introduce some of its applications. After primary familiarity with this system we investigate to different type of attacker, more important security issues, How to secure vehicular networks (security requirements and some tools and methods to achieve secure vehicular networks), difficulties and providing viable security solutions, and at the end briefly explanation of related standards.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Facing Automated Vehicles and Insurance

2020-08-05
EPR2020015
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report explores how the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) will affect the insurance industry and the principles of liability that underly the structure of insurance in the US. As we trade human drivers for suites of sensors and computers, who (or what) is responsible when there is a crash? The owner of the vehicle? The automaker that built it? The programmer that wrote the code? Insurers have over 100 years of experience and data covering human drivers, but with only a few years’ worth of information on AVs – how can they properly predict the true risks associated with their deployment? Without an understanding of the nature and risks of AVs, how can the government agencies that regulate the insurance industry provide proper oversight? Do the challenges AVs present require a total reworking of our insurance and liability systems, or can our current structures be adapted to fit them with minor modifications?
Technical Paper

Hardware/Software Co-Design of an Automotive Embedded Firewall

2017-03-28
2017-01-1659
The automotive industry experiences a major change as vehicles are gradually becoming a part of the Internet. Security concepts based on the closed-world assumption cannot be deployed anymore due to a constantly changing adversary model. Automotive Ethernet as future in-vehicle network and a new E/E Architecture have different security requirements than Ethernet known from traditional IT and legacy systems. In order to achieve a high level of security, a new multi-layer approach in the vehicle which responds to special automotive requirements has to be introduced. One essential layer of this holistic security concept is to restrict non-authorized access by the deployment of embedded firewalls. This paper addresses the introduction of automotive firewalls into the next-generation domain architecture with a focus on partitioning of its features in hardware and software.
Technical Paper

A Blockchain-Backed Database for Qualified Parts

2019-03-19
2019-01-1343
Certain standard parts in the aerospace industry require qualification as a prerequisite to manufacturing, signifying that the manufacturer’s capacity to produce parts consistent with the performance specifications has been audited by a neutral third-party auditor, key customer, and/or group of customers. In at least some cases, a certifying authority provides manufacturers with certificates of qualification which they can then present to prospective customers, and/or lists qualified suppliers in a Qualified Parts List or Qualified Supplier List available from that qualification authority. If this list is in an infrequently updated and/or inconsistently styled format as might be found in a print or PDF document, potential customers wishing to integrate qualification information into their supplier tracking systems must use a potentially error-prone manual process that could lead to later reliance on out-of-date or even forged data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Setup Enabling Self-Confrontation Interviews for Modelling Naturalistic Driving Behavior

2019-04-02
2019-01-1082
Behavioral models of traffic actors have a potential of unlocking sophisticated safety features and mitigating several challenges of urban automated driving. Intuitively, volunteers driving on routes of daily commuting in their private vehicles are the preferred source of information to be captured by data collection system. Such dataset can then serve as a basis for identifying efficient methods of context representation and parameterization of behavioral models. This paper describes the experimental setup supporting the development of driver behavioral models within the SIMUSAFE project. In particular, the paper presents an IoT data acquisition and analysis infrastructure supporting self-confrontation interviews with drivers. The proposed retrofit system was installed in private vehicles of volunteers in two European cities. Wherever possible, the setup used open source software and electronic components available on consumer market.
Technical Paper

CAN Crypto FPGA Chip to Secure Data Transmitted Through CAN FD Bus Using AES-128 and SHA-1 Algorithms with A Symmetric Key

2017-03-28
2017-01-1612
Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
Technical Paper

Case Study for Defining Security Goals and Requirements for Automotive Security Parts Using Threat Modeling

2018-04-03
2018-01-0014
Several external networks like telematics, and SOTA and many in-vehicle networks by gateways and domain controllers have been increasingly introduced. However, these trends may potentially make many critical data opened, attacked and modified by hackers. These days, vehicle security has been significantly required as these vehicle security threats are related to the human life like drivers and pedestrians. Threat modeling is process of secure software development lifecycle which is developed by Microsoft. It is a systematic approach for analyzing the potential threat in software and identifying the security risk associated with software. Through threat modeling, security risk is be mitigated and eliminated. In vehicle software System, one of vulnerability can affect critical problem about safety. An approach from experience and hacking cases is not enough for analyzing the potential threat and preparing new hacking attack.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

2019-04-02
2019-01-0118
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation

2019-12-06
EPR2019007
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk. Second, developing a universal simulation model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Technical Paper

The Autonomous Vehicle Challenges for Emergent Market

2017-11-07
2017-36-0436
Technological advances in both hardware (Nano-electronics) and software (artificial intelligence) are increasingly influencing our lives on equipment and devices that surrounds us and more recently our means of locomotion. The autonomous vehicles, which previously appeared only in movie scenes, can already be found in our environment, such as ships, cars, trucks, tractors and aero engines. Considering the autonomous vehicles, its launching is much closer than we could imagine, since many companies signalize having the conditions to launch them in a large scale within 2018 year. The insertion of this type of technology opens a range of advances related to vehicles and the environment in which it is inserted. The communication between the vehicles, roads and people can be highlighted. These advances reveal a series of benefits to the customer such as free time during the route, higher safety, etc.
Technical Paper

Total Vehicle Integration and Design - Journey to Electrification, Digitization and Connectivity Leading to Autonomy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0003
Total vehicle integration and design is a complex process and deals with interactions of many subsystems. The subsystems in a vehicle not only have to perform their role but interfaces between the subsystems must be well understood to design for all the interactions. The global automotive market is following electrification, digitization and connectivity trends that eventually lead to Autonomy. Therefore, the vehicle integration design process needs to include these new use cases of these trends. The process starts with establishing the top-level vehicle metrics relative to key deliverables of the vehicle ranging from providing comfortable environment to the driver to good performance. The process of establishing vehicle level metrics is not trivial and quite often must be derived from the customer verbatim. Frequently, there are conflicting requirements and priority must be given to one over another.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning User Experience and Acceptance of Automated Vehicles

2020-06-29
EPR2020012
This SAE EDGE Research Report addresses the unsettled topic of user acceptance of automated driving, analyzing the user experience for a more intuitive and safe driving experience. Unsettled Topics Concerning User Experience and Acceptance of Automated Vehicles examines the requirements for safer driver/user engagement with driving for the various SAE automation levels. It analyzes consumer sentiment toward automated driving - both consumer excitement about the perceived benefits and dislikes or concerns about the technology. The findings from surveys about drivers' experience with advanced driving assistance technologies and its application to automated driving is also brought to the surface of the discussion, together with driver profiles observed during a user-centric experience in an immersive automated driving cockpit.
X