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Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Testing and Validation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1655
We also consider the necessary scope and depth of cybersecurity testing and suggest examples of how this can be related to cybersecurity requirements, goals and integrity levels, as determined by the threat analysis and risk assessment. ...An essential part of an effective cybersecurity engineering process is testing the implementation of a system for vulnerabilities and validating the effectiveness of countermeasures. ...The SAE J3061 Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems provides a recommended framework which organizations can use to implement a cybersecurity engineering process, which includes activities such as integration and testing, penetration testing and verification/validation of cybersecurity requirements at the hardware, software and system levels.
Journal Article

Cybersecurity Metrics for Automotive Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0138
With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming International Organization for Standardization and the Society for Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (UNECE WP.29), it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles. ...Cybersecurity for automotive systems is challenging, and one of the major challenges is how to measure this specific system property. ...With the increased need for cybersecurity in automotive systems due to the development of more advanced technologies and corresponding increased threat vectors, coupled with the upcoming International Organization for Standardization and the Society for Automotive Engineers (ISO/SAE) 21434 cybersecurity standard for automotive systems and cybersecurity regulations in The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (UNECE WP.29), it is becoming increasingly important for auto manufacturers and suppliers to have a clear and common understanding and agreement of cybersecurity metrics for the development and deployment of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity by Agile Design

2023-04-11
2023-01-0035
ISO/SAE 21434 [1] Final International Standard was released September 2021 to great fanfare and is the most prominent standard in Automotive Cybersecurity. As members of the Joint Working Group (JWG) the authors spent 5 years developing the 84 pages of precise wording acceptable to hundreds of contributors. ...The application to Agile may require interpreting the standard from another angle, which could involve reordering the sequence of activities and work products, breaking down the acceptable criteria of some work products to allow rapid iterations, and verifications of meta data or intermediate work products. In cybersecurity engineering, Agile has its unique strength compared to the V-model method, as its cyclical nature is better aligned with best practices for Cybersecurity Frameworks. ...In cybersecurity engineering, Agile has its unique strength compared to the V-model method, as its cyclical nature is better aligned with best practices for Cybersecurity Frameworks.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity in the Context of Fail-Operational Systems

2024-04-09
2024-01-2808
The development of highly automated driving functions (AD) recently rises the demand for so called Fail-Operational systems for native driving functions like steering and braking of vehicles. Fail-Operational systems shall guarantee the availability of driving functions even in presence of failures. This can also mean a degradation of system performance or limiting a system’s remaining operating period. In either case, the goal is independency from a human driver as a permanently situation-aware safety fallback solution to provide a certain level of autonomy. In parallel, the connectivity of modern vehicles is increasing rapidly and especially in vehicles with highly automated functions, there is a high demand for connected functions, Infotainment (web conference, Internet, Shopping) and Entertainment (Streaming, Gaming) to entertain the passengers, who should no longer occupied with driving tasks.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Integrating Cybersecurity into Existing Development Processes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0144
Strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and cybersecurity topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. ...Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. A cybersecurity development approach is frequently perceived as introducing impediments, that bear the risk of cybersecurity measures receiving a lower priority to reduce inconvenience. ...For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding cybersecurity features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity without perceivable benefits.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Training Approach for Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering

2024-04-09
2024-01-2800
A significant milestone in advancing cybersecurity within the automotive industry is the release of the first international standard for automotive cybersecurity ISO/SAE 21434:2021 ‘Road Vehicles — Cybersecurity Engineering’. A recently published type approval regulation for automotive cybersecurity (UN R155) is also tailored for member countries of the UNECE WP.29 alliance. ...Thus, the challenges for embedded automotive systems engineers are increasing while frameworks, tools and shared concepts for cybersecurity engineering and training are scarce. Hence, cybersecurity training in the automotive domain necessitates an understanding of domain-specific intricacies and the unique challenges at the intersection of cybersecurity and embedded systems engineering, elevating the need for improving the skill set and knowledge of automotive cybersecurity engineers. ...Hence, cybersecurity training in the automotive domain necessitates an understanding of domain-specific intricacies and the unique challenges at the intersection of cybersecurity and embedded systems engineering, elevating the need for improving the skill set and knowledge of automotive cybersecurity engineers. This paper delves into an automotive cybersecurity training concept aimed at enhancing the proficiency of development engineers.
Technical Paper

Integrating Fuzz Testing into the Cybersecurity Validation Strategy

2021-04-06
2021-01-0139
Therefore, modern cybersecurity validation is highly stressed for finding security vulnerabilities and robustness issues early and systematically at every stage of the product development process. ...The integration of a sophisticated fuzz testing program within the overall cybersecurity validation strategy allows for accommodating towards these challenging demands. In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing. ...In this paper, we review a general automotive cybersecurity engineering process containing functional testing, vulnerability scanning and penetration testing, and highlight shortcomings that can be complemented by fuzz testing.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Rating Framework and Its Application to J1939-91C Standard

2024-04-09
2024-01-2803
UNECE R155 explicitly references ISO/SAE 21434 and mandates a certified cybersecurity management system (CSMS) as a prerequisite for automotive manufacturers to achieve vehicle type approval and sell new vehicle types. ...However, the gap in the CSMS framework is a lack in a standardized system that provides guidance and common criteria for automakers to measure a vehicle’s level of compliance and compute a publicly accepted cybersecurity rating. To help establish increased consumer confidence, OEMs and smart mobility stakeholders could take additional proactive steps to ensure the safety and security of their products. ...This paper addresses the above requirement and discusses the cybersecurity rating framework (CSRF) that could establish a framework for rating vehicle cybersecurity by standardizing the measurement criteria, parameter vectors, process, and tools.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity Approval Criteria: Application of UN R155

2024-07-02
2024-01-2983
The UN R155 regulation is the first automotive cybersecurity regulation and has made security a mandatory approval criterion for new vehicle types. ...These recommendations aim to enhance the comprehensiveness of the security assessment associated with UN R155, fostering a more uniform approach to evaluating cybersecurity in the context of vehicle type approvals.
Technical Paper

Safety, ADAS, and Cybersecurity: Vol. 2

2024-05-03
EPRCOMPV162023
And as much as there are technical questions regarding network latency, bandwidth, cybersecurity, etc., aspects like human workload, attentiveness, and situational awareness also need to be clarified.
Technical Paper

Safety, ADAS, and Cybersecurity: Vol. 1

2024-05-03
EPRCOMPV152023
This chapter delves into the field of multi-agent collaborative perception (MCP) for autonomous driving: an area that remains unresolved. Current single-agent perception systems suffer from limitations, such as occlusion and sparse sensor observation at a far distance. To address this, three unsettled topics have been identified that demand immediate attention. First, it is crucial to establish normative communication protocols to facilitate seamless information sharing among vehicles. Second, collaboration strategies need to be defined, including identifying the need for specific collaboration projects, determining the collaboration partners, defining the content of collaboration, and establishing the integration mechanism. Finally, collecting sufficient data for MCP model training is vital. This includes capturing diverse modal data and labeling various downstream tasks as accurately as possible.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Penetration Testing for Automotive Cybersecurity

2022-12-16
2022-01-7123
Automotive electronics and enterprise IT are converging and thus open the doors for advanced hacking. With their immediate safety impact, cyberattacks on such systems will endanger passengers. Today, there are various methods of security verification and validation in the automotive industry. However, we realize that vulnerability detection is incomplete and inefficient with classic security testing. In this article, we show how an enhanced Grey-Box Penetration Test (GBPT) needs less test cases while being more effective in terms of coverage and indicating less false positives.
Technical Paper

Consequence-Driven Cybersecurity for High-Power Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

2023-04-11
2023-01-0047
Cybersecurity of high-power charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs) is critical to the safety, reliability, and consumer confidence in this publicly accessible technology. ...Cybersecurity of high-power charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs) is critical to the safety, reliability, and consumer confidence in this publicly accessible technology. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in high-power EV charging infrastructure may also present risks to broader transportation and energy-infrastructure systems. ...This paper details a methodology used to analyze and prioritize high-consequence events that could result from cybersecurity sabotage to high-power charging infrastructure. The highest prioritized events are evaluated under laboratory conditions for the severity of impact and the complexity of cybersecurity manipulation.
Technical Paper

Applying Blockchain to Vehicle Cybersecurity: Nuance to the Standard Application

2022-03-29
2022-01-0368
In adjusting the data flow, this is an option to increase the cybersecurity for a complete system. This addition to the cybersecurity system provides a clear benefit. ...While this is the traditional application experienced, there are other applications relevant to cybersecurity. As part of the blockchain technology, the nodes are responsible for decision-making.
Research Report

Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles

2024-04-22
EPR2024009
On the other hand, the potential risks associated with CAV deployment related to technical vulnerabilities are safety and cybersecurity issues that may arise from flawed hardware and software. Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles elaborates on these topics as unsettled cybersecurity and digital trust issues in CAVs and follows with recommendations to fill in the gaps in this evolving field. ...Cybersecurity and Digital Trust Issues in Connected and Automated Vehicles elaborates on these topics as unsettled cybersecurity and digital trust issues in CAVs and follows with recommendations to fill in the gaps in this evolving field. ...This report also highlights the importance of establishing robust cybersecurity protocols and fostering digital trust in these vehicles to ensure safe and secure deployment in our modern transportation system.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. ...Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles. ...As the domain geared up for the cybersecurity challenges, they leveraged experiences from many other domains, but must face several unique challenges.
Technical Paper

Digital-Twin-Based Approaches and Applications for Improving Automotive Cybersecurity in Different Lifecycle Stages

2023-04-11
2023-01-0036
With the increasing connectivity and complexity of modern automobiles, cybersecurity has become one of the most important properties of a vehicle. Various strategies have been proposed to enhance automotive cybersecurity. ...Various strategies have been proposed to enhance automotive cybersecurity. Digital twin (DT), regarded as one of the top 10 strategic technology trends by Gartner in 2018 and 2019, establishes digital representations in a virtual world and raises new ideas to benefit real-life objects. ...In this paper, we explored the possibility of using digital twin technology to improve automotive cybersecurity. We designed two kinds of digital twin models, named mirror DT and autonomous DT, and corresponding environments to support cybersecurity design, development, and maintenance in an auto’s lifecycle, as well as technique training.
Technical Paper

Requirements for the Automated Generation of Attack Trees to Support Automotive Cybersecurity Assurance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0124
Although ISO/SAE 21434 recommends the development of an assurance case for cybersecurity, the precise nature of a cybersecurity case is not explicitly defined within the standard. ...In the case of cybersecurity, this problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of vehicular onboard systems, their inherent obscurity due to their heterogenous architecture, emergent behaviors, and the disparate motivations and resources of potential threat agents.
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