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Technical Paper

Challenges in Integrating Cybersecurity into Existing Development Processes

2020-04-14
2020-01-0144
Strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and cybersecurity topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. ...Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. A cybersecurity development approach is frequently perceived as introducing impediments, that bear the risk of cybersecurity measures receiving a lower priority to reduce inconvenience. ...For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding cybersecurity features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity without perceivable benefits.
Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. ...These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Penetration Testing for Automotive Cybersecurity

2022-12-16
2022-01-7123
Automotive electronics and enterprise IT are converging and thus open the doors for advanced hacking. With their immediate safety impact, cyberattacks on such systems will endanger passengers. Today, there are various methods of security verification and validation in the automotive industry. However, we realize that vulnerability detection is incomplete and inefficient with classic security testing. In this article, we show how an enhanced Grey-Box Penetration Test (GBPT) needs less test cases while being more effective in terms of coverage and indicating less false positives.
Technical Paper

Consequence-Driven Cybersecurity for High Power Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

2023-04-11
2023-01-0047
Cybersecurity of high-power charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs) is critical to the safety and re-liability of and consumer confidence in this publicly accessible technology. ...Cybersecurity of high-power charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs) is critical to the safety and re-liability of and consumer confidence in this publicly accessible technology. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities of high-power EV charging infrastructure may also present risks to broader transportation and energy-infrastructure systems. ...This paper details a methodology used to analyze and prioritize high-consequence events that could result from cybersecurity sabotage to high-power charging infrastructure. The highest prioritized events are evaluated under laboratory conditions for severity of impact and complexity of cybersecurity manipulation.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. ...Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles. ...As the domain geared up for the cybersecurity challenges, they leveraged experiences from many other domains, but must face several unique challenges.
Technical Paper

Requirements for the Automated Generation of Attack Trees to Support Automotive Cybersecurity Assurance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0124
Although ISO/SAE 21434 recommends the development of an assurance case for cybersecurity, the precise nature of a cybersecurity case is not explicitly defined within the standard. ...In the case of cybersecurity, this problem is exacerbated by the increasing complexity of vehicular onboard systems, their inherent obscurity due to their heterogenous architecture, emergent behaviors, and the disparate motivations and resources of potential threat agents.
Technical Paper

Cybersecurity in EV's: Approach for Systematic Secured SW Development through ISO21434 & ASPICE

2023-04-11
2023-01-0046
Cybersecurity (CS) is crucial and significantly important in every product that is connected to the network/internet. ...Hence making it very important to guarantee that every single connected device shall have cybersecurity measures implemented to ensure the safety of the entire system. Looking into the forecasted worldwide growth in the Electric Vehicles (EV's) segment , CS researchers have recently identified several vulnerabilities that exist in EV's, EVSE devices, communications to electric vehicles (EVs), and upstream services, such as EVSE vendor cloud services, third party systems, and grid operators. ...Additional Processes have been defined in the Process Reference and Assessment Model for the CS Engineering in order to incorporate the cybersecurity related processes in the ASPICE scope. This paper aims at providing a model & brief overview to establish a correlation between the ASPICE, ISO/SAE 21434 and the ISO26262 functional safety standards for development of a secured Cybersecurity Software with all the considerations that an organization can undertake.
Technical Paper

Common Vulnerability Considerations as an Integral Part of the Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering Process

2022-10-05
2022-28-0304
To build secure systems of road vehicles, the cybersecurity engineering standard ISO21434[11] suggests the evaluation of vulnerabilities throughout engineering process, such as attack path analysis, system requirement stage, software architecture, design, and implementation and testing phases. ...With my analysis and practices, it is appropriate to include the common vulnerabilities that ought to be an integral part of the automotive cybersecurity engineering process. In this paper, the author would like to provide a list of vulnerabilities that might be a suggestion for threat analysis and risk assessment and propose two solutions that may be adopted directly in the V-model for security-relevant software development.
Technical Paper

Wireless Charging for EV/HEV with Prescriptive Analytics, Machine Learning, Cybersecurity and Blockchain Technology: Ongoing and Future Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0790
Due to the rapid development in the technological aspect of the autonomous vehicle (AV), there is a compelling need for research in the field vehicle efficiency and emission reduction without affecting the performance, safety and reliability of the vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) with rechargeable battery has been proved to be a practical solution for the above problem. In order to utilize the maximum capacity of the battery, a proper power management and control mechanism need to be developed such that it does not affect the performance, reliability and safety of vehicle. Different optimization techniques along with deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach are used for the power distribution and management control. The battery-operated electric vehicle can be recharged either by plug-in a wired connection or by the inductive mean (i.e. wirelessly) with the help of the electromagnetic field energy.
Technical Paper

Challenges with Introduction of X-by-Wire Technologies to Passenger Vehicles and Light Trucks with Respect to Functional Safety, Cybersecurity and Availability

2023-04-11
2023-01-0581
Classical vehicle production had over a long period limitation in bringing the driving commands to the actuators for vehicle motion (Engine, Steering, Braking). Steering columns, hydraulic tubes or steel cables needed to be placed between driver and actuator. Change begun with introduction of e-gas systems. Mechanical cables were replaced by thin electric signal wires. For addressing the steering and braking systems, the technical solutions and legal standardizations were not given at this point of time. Nowadays the OEM are starting huge EE-Architecture transformation for manifold reasons and they have the chance to get rid of long hydraulic tubes for braking and solid metal columns for steering. X-by-wire is the keyword, also driven by the plans for higher AD (Autonomous Driving) levels for automated driving vehicles. Driven by new requirement (AD) it also offers new opportunities to design the vehicle in-cabin room.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable Security-By-Design Approach for Addressing Secured Remote Monitoring Teleoperation (RMTO) of an Autonomous Vehicle

2023-04-11
2023-01-0579
The separation of cybersecurity consideration in RMTO in comparison to AV has barely been touched upon, as most available research and consideration has mainly been focused on AV. ...Though security-by-design is still in the infant state within the automotive cybersecurity. For our development, an adaptable security-by-design approach for RMTO will cover Security Engineering Lifecycle, Logical Security Layered Concept, and Security Architecture. ...A Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment (TARA) of the RMTO as defined in the international automotive cybersecurity standard ISO/SAE 21434 and UNECE WP29 would be carried out and a formalization of the highest level of threats discovered in the RMTO system with a corresponding mitigation action.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software

2021-04-21
EPR2021009
Unsettled Issues Regarding Autonomous Vehicles and Open-source Software introduces the impact of software in advanced automotive applications, the role of open-source communities in accelerating innovation, and the important topic of safety and cybersecurity. As electronic functionality is captured in software and a bigger percentage of that software is open-source code, some critical challenges arise concerning security and validation.
Research Report

Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on Grid Energy Buffering

2022-09-26
EPR2022022
Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on Grid Energy Buffering discusses the unsettled issues and requirements needed to realize the potential of EV batteries for demand response and grid services, such as improved battery management, control strategies, and enhanced cybersecurity. Hybrid and fuel cell EVs have significant potential to act as “peakers” for longer duration buffering, and this approach has the potential to provide all the long-term energy buffering required by a VRE-intensive grid.
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