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Journal Article

The Missing Link: Aircraft Cybersecurity at the Operational Level

2020-07-25
Abstract Aircraft cybersecurity efforts have tended to focus at the strategic or tactical levels without a clear connection between the two. ...CSSEP’s process model postulates that security is best achieved by a balance of cybersecurity, cyber resiliency, defensibility, and recoverability and that control is best established by developing security constraints versus attempting to find every vulnerability. ...CSSEP identifies the major functions needed to do effective aircraft cybersecurity and provides a flexible framework as the “missing link” to connect the strategic and tactical levels of aircraft cybersecurity.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Airworthiness Cybersecurity Regulation

2020-08-31
EPR2020013
Its extensive application of data networks, including enhanced external digital communication, forced the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), for the first time, to set “Special Conditions” for cybersecurity. In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. ...In the 15 years that ensued, airworthiness regulation followed suit, and all key rule-, regulation-, and standard-making organizations weighed in to establish a new airworthiness cybersecurity superset of legislation, regulation, and standardization. The resulting International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) resolutions, US and European Union (EU) legislations, FAA and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) regulations, and the DO-326/ED-202 set of standards are already the de-facto, and soon becoming the official, standards for legislation, regulation, and best practices, with the FAA already mandating it to a constantly growing extent for a few years now—and EASA adopting the set in its entirety in July 2020.
Article

Challenges ahead: cybersecurity and the aerospace supply chain

2018-07-24
Supply chains, now being targeted as a pathway to the vital core of organizations around the world, have become a vital part of the industry’s cybersecurity strategy, says Kirsten Koepsel, author of SAE International’s latest book, The Aerospace Supply Chain and Cyber Security – Challenges Ahead, now available.
Article

Lockheed Martin rolls out cybersecurity standardization model

2019-08-23
Lockheed Martin Corporation cyber security experts have released a new Cyber Resiliency Level (CRL) model. CRL a risk-based, mission-focused and cost-conscious framework that provides a structured set of methodologies and processes to help measure risk across six categories.
Article

SAE course delivers an introduction to the latest aviation cybersecurity essentials

2019-06-11
SAE International’s two-day course, DO-326A and ED-202A: An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials, introduces attendees to industry best practices for real-world aviation cybersecurity risk assessment, development, assurance. ...SAE International’s two-day course, DO-326A and ED-202A: An Introduction to the New and Mandatory Aviation Cyber-Security Essentials, introduces attendees to industry best practices for real-world aviation cybersecurity risk assessment, development, assurance.
Technical Paper

Information Security Risk Management of Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0015
The results of this work is allowed to identify a number of cybersecurity threats of the automated security-critical automotive systems, which reduces the efficiency of operation, road safety and system safety. ...According to the evaluating criterion of board electronics, the presence of poorly-protected communication channels, the 75% of the researched modern vehicles do not meet the minimum requirements of cybersecurity due to the danger of external blocking of vital systems. The revealed vulnerabilities of the security-critical automotive systems lead to the necessity of developing methods for mechanical and electronic protection of the modern vehicle. ...The law of normal distribution of the mid-points of the expert evaluation of the cyber-security of a modern vehicle has been determined. Based on the system approach, ranking of the main cybersecurity treats is performed.
Book

Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Impacting Commercial Aviation

2019-09-04
Written by Kirsten Koepsel, a lawyer and engineer whose work has focused on aviation cybersecurity, Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Impacting Commercial Aviation addresses the big question facing aircraft manufacturers today: keep the work in house or outsource it? ...Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Impacting Commercial Aviation discusses the differences in requirements depending on the buyer of the aircraft (governmental or not), ranging from delivery delays to risks linked to cybersecurity and the Internet of Things (IoT), including possible problems with faulty sensors and counterfeit parts.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2015

2015-10-01
Countering cybersecurity threats against unmanned vehicle systems Cranfield University researchers have developed a monitoring system whose purpose is to monitor mission profile implementation at both high level mission execution and at lower level software code operation to tackle specific threats of malicious code and possible spurious commands received over a vehicle's data links.
Technical Paper

Secure Deterministic L2/L3 Ethernet Networking for Integrated Architectures

2017-09-19
2017-01-2103
Cybersecurity attacks exploit vulnerabilities related to the increased complexity and connectivity of critical infrastructure systems. ...Network security is a core component of the overall cyber-security and defense-in-depth capability for distributed architectures. Protection mechanism for information, interface and system integrity, communication availability, and data confidentiality are required for design of safe and secure integrated embedded infrastructure.
Book

The Aerospace Supply Chain and Cyber Security - Challenges Ahead

2018-07-20
The Aerospace Supply Chain and Cyber Security - Challenges Ahead looks at the current state of commercial aviation and cyber security, how information technology and its attractiveness to cyber attacks is affecting it, and the way supply chains have become a vital part of the industry's cyber-security strategy. More than ever before, commercial aviation relies on information and communications technology.
Training / Education

Introduction to Cyber Security for Commercial Aviation

Despite the advantages of electronic flight bags (EFB), passenger entertainment and email access during flights, and the ability to access aircraft repair manuals electronically, computer interconnectivity throughout aviation has opened the aviation sector to cyber-attacks that could impact flights, data, and safety. This two-day seminar is intended to introduce aviation professionals to the need to implement cyber security throughout commercial aviation including the supply chain.
Standard

GUIDANCE FOR USAGE OF DIGITAL CERTIFICATES

2018-07-11
CURRENT
ARINC842-2
This document sets forth guidance for life-cycle management of public/private (i.e., asymmetric) keys that are used to secure interactions among systems.
Standard

Unmanned Systems (UxS) Control Segment (UCS) Architecture: Architecture Technical Governance

2020-08-12
CURRENT
AS6522A
This Technical Governance is part of the SAE UCS Architecture Library and is primarily concerned with the UCS Architecture Model (AS6518) starting at Revision A and its user extensions. Users of the Model may extend it in accordance with AS6513 to meet the needs of their UCS Products. UCS Products include software components, software configurations and systems that provide or consume UCS services. For further information, refer to AS6513 Revision A or later. Technical Governance is part of the UCS Architecture Framework. This framework governs the UCS views expressed as Packages and Diagrams in the UCS Architecture Model.
Video

Advancing Aircraft Cyber Security - Potential New Architectures and Technologies

2012-03-16
Cyber security in the aviation industry, especially in relation to onboard aircraft systems, presents unique challenges in its implementation and management. The cyber threat model is constantly evolving and will continually present new and different challenges to the aircraft operator in responding to new cyber threats without either invoking a lengthy software update and re-certification process or limiting aircraft-to-ground communications to the threatened system or systems. This presentation discusses a number of system architectural options and developing technologies that could be considered to enhance the aircraft cyber protection and defensive capabilities of onboard systems as well as to minimize the effort associated with certification/re-certification. Some of these limit the aircraft?s vulnerabilities or in cyber terms, its ?threat surface?.
Standard

Configuration Management Requirements for Defense Contracts

2020-08-10
CURRENT
EIA649_1A
This document applies to hardware and software and provides CM requirements to be placed on contracts after being tailored by the Acquirer. The requirements have been organized by the following five CM functions: a Configuration Planning and Management b Configuration Identification c Configuration Change Management d Configuration Status Accounting e Configuration Verification and Audit
Standard

Unmanned Systems (UxS) Control Segment (UCS) Architecture: Architecture Description

2020-07-14
CURRENT
AS6512A
This document is the Architecture Description (AD) for the SAE Unmanned Systems (UxS) Control Segment (UCS) Architecture Library Revision A or, simply, the UCS Architecture. The architecture is expressed by a library of SAE publications as referenced herein. The other publications in the UCS Architecture Library Revision A are: AS6513A, AS6518A, AS6522A, and AS6969A.
Technical Paper

UAS Behaviour and Consistency Monitoring System for Countering Cyber Security Threats

2014-09-16
2014-01-2131
Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoiter dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. Unfortunately, these platforms also carry the inherent risk of being built on innately vulnerable cybernetic systems. From software which can be tampered with to either steal data, damage or even outright steal the aircraft, to the data networks used for communications which can be jammed or even eavesdropped on to gain access to sensible information. All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures.
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