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Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems

2016-01-14
CURRENT
J3061_201601
This recommended practice provides guidance on vehicle Cybersecurity and was created based off of, and expanded on from, existing practices which are being implemented or reported in industry, government and conference papers. ...Other proprietary Cybersecurity development processes and standards may have been established to support a specific manufacturer’s development processes, and may not be comprehensively represented in this document, however, information contained in this document may help refine existing in-house processes, methods, etc. ...This recommended practice establishes a set of high-level guiding principles for Cybersecurity as it relates to cyber-physical vehicle systems. This includes: Defining a complete lifecycle process framework that can be tailored and utilized within each organization’s development processes to incorporate Cybersecurity into cyber-physical vehicle systems from concept phase through production, operation, service, and decommissioning.
Technical Paper

Cyber-security for Engine ECUs: Past, Present and Future

2015-09-01
2015-01-1998
In this paper, we outline past, present and future applications of automotive security for engine ECUs. Electronic immobilizers and anti-tuning countermeasures have been used for several years. Recently, OEMs and suppliers are facing more and more powerful attackers, and as a result, have introduced stronger countermeasures based on hardware security. Finally, with the advent of connected cars, it is expected that many things that currently require a physical connection will be done remotely in a near future. This includes remote diagnostics, reprogramming and engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Cybersecurity Based on Dedicated Security Hardware and ECDH Algorithm

2017-09-23
2017-01-2005
Vehicle cybersecurity consists of internal security and external security. Dedicated security hardware will play an important role in car’s internal and external security communication. ...For certain AURIX MCU consisting of HSM, the experiment result shows that cheaper 32-bit HSM’s AES calculating speed is 25 times of 32-bit main controller, so HSM is an effective choice to realize cybersecurity. After comparing two existing methods that realize secure CAN communication, A Modified SECURE CAN scheme is proposed, and differences of the three schemes are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Wireless Charging for EV/HEV with Prescriptive Analytics, Machine Learning, Cybersecurity and Blockchain Technology: Ongoing and Future Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0790
Due to the rapid development in the technological aspect of the autonomous vehicle (AV), there is a compelling need for research in the field vehicle efficiency and emission reduction without affecting the performance, safety and reliability of the vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) with rechargeable battery has been proved to be a practical solution for the above problem. In order to utilize the maximum capacity of the battery, a proper power management and control mechanism need to be developed such that it does not affect the performance, reliability and safety of vehicle. Different optimization techniques along with deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach are used for the power distribution and management control. The battery-operated electric vehicle can be recharged either by plug-in a wired connection or by the inductive mean (i.e. wirelessly) with the help of the electromagnetic field energy.
Technical Paper

Lessons Learned in Inter-Organization Virtual Integration

2018-10-30
2018-01-1944
The SAE AS2C Standard AS5506C Architecture Analysis and Description Language (AADL) is a modeling language for predictive analysis of real-time software reliant, safety and cybersecurity critical systems that provides both the precision of formal modeling and the tool-agnostic freedom of a text-based representation. ...AADL supports multiple domains of architectural analysis such as timing, latency, resources, safety, scheduling, and cybersecurity. Adventium Labs conducted an exercise to determine the applicability of software engineering practices (e.g., continuous integration (CI), application programming interface (API) sharing, test driven development (TDD)) to the AADL-based Architecture Centric Virtual Integration Process (ACVIP).
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: August 2017

2017-08-03
Is automotive ready for the inevitable? Cybersecurity experts talk defense strategies. Active Aero takes flight Reconfigurable "smart" aerodynamic aids are stretching performance-car envelopes in every direction.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: February 2017

2017-02-02
SAE Standards News VS committees fully engaged on cybersecurity. Honda's new 10-speed is a slick shifter SAE Level 3 'hand off' challenging AI researchers Lightweight door module aims to trim vehicle weight Exclusive first drive: Torotrak's V-Charge technology New 10-speed auto delights in 2017 Ford F-150 Power and more underscore 2018 Toyota Camry I.D.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security

2019-04-02
2019-01-0129
The caveat to these additional capabilities is issues like cybersecurity, complexity, etc. This paper is an exploration into FuSa and CAVs and will present a systematic approach to understand challenges and propose potential framework, Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security (IVMSS) to handle faults/malfunctions in CAVs, and specifically autonomous systems.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: March 2019

2019-03-01
Rethinking the HUD Advanced tech solutions move toward augmented reality to bring greater capability to head-up displays. Motor matters New designs and materials are key to the next generation of electric machines for EV propulsion. Harnessing the power of Sim Serious cost savings could come from eliminating vehicle- and systems-level tests. Powerful simulation tools may be the only way to tackle the increasing complexity in mobility development. An OBE for the SAE Meet Paul Mascarenas-SAE International's 2019 president. He's a staunch advocate for professional development for engineers amid the mobility industry's transformation. Solving the propulsion puzzle Must-attend expert panels at SAE's WCX '19 will cover the propulsion-tech future like no other. Editorial Kill the EV tax credit by 2025 SAE Standards News SAE and Synopsys collaborate on cyber study Supplier Eye New Co. vs. Old Co.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: October 6, 2015

2015-10-06
2016 Malibu sheds 300 lb, adds new hybrid system More wheelbase, style, fuel economy, and comfort aim to move GM's volume midsize sedan from the sidelines to the fast lane. Lighter, more powerful 2016 Honda Pilot The third-generation SUV gets a sleek new look and plenty of slick technology for enhanced performance and safety. 2016 Mazda MX-5 stays true to its roots Mazda engineers give the industry a lesson in getting more from less. 2016 Land Rover Discovery Sport spearheads more efficient Land Rovers JLR's space-efficient, flexible SUV moves to JLR's new Ingenium modular engines. Audi chooses high technology, cautious design evolution for new A4 In addition to lighter weight and significant improvements in efficiency, the new car employs plenty of technology and driver support.
Technical Paper

CAN Crypto FPGA Chip to Secure Data Transmitted Through CAN FD Bus Using AES-128 and SHA-1 Algorithms with A Symmetric Key

2017-03-28
2017-01-1612
Robert Bosch GmBH proposed in 2012 a new version of communication protocol named as Controller area network with Flexible Data-Rate (CANFD), that supports data frames up to 64 bytes compared to 8 bytes of CAN. With limited data frame size of CAN message, and it is impossible to be encrypted and secured. With this new feature of CAN FD, we propose a hardware design - CAN crypto FPGA chip to secure data transmitted through CAN FD bus by using AES-128 and SHA-1 algorithms with a symmetric key. AES-128 algorithm will provide confidentiality of CAN message and SHA-1 algorithm with a symmetric key (HMAC) will provide integrity and authentication of CAN message. The design has been modeled and verified by using Verilog HDL – a hardware description language, and implemented successfully into Xilinx FPGA chip by using simulation tool ISE (Xilinx).
Technical Paper

Modelify: Semi-Automatic Conversion of Control Systems C Code to Simulink Models

2016-04-05
2016-01-0020
Over the last decade, the automotive industry has embraced model-based development for control systems. Many of these companies have chosen Simulink from MathWorks to design and simulate these models. However, a remaining issue is the fact that many control systems were initially written in C and are still being used. Some companies have attempted to manually convert these C systems to Simulink models but have found this method to be too costly, error-prone, and time consuming. EnSoft decided to tackle this problem by providing a semi-automated conversion using our Atlas for C tool. Atlas is a tool that maps software and creates a relation map for all parts of the program. It then offers the developer tools to query and visualize this graph. We have developed Modelify, a tool built on this framework that performs the necessary queries on a C project and creates equivalent Simulink models and subsystems.
Magazine

Automotive Engineering: September 2017

2017-09-01
New vision @ Gentex Creating a vital ADAS partner through home-grown R&D and manufacturing in (of all places) western Michigan. Positioning for hybrid growth BorgWarner "modularizes" to provide OEMs optimal electrified-driveline flexibility. Editorial: Beleaguered diesel could use a break-or a breakthrough SAE Standards News Kickoff to begin testing program to validate SAE J2954 wireless charging Recommended Practice Supplier Eye Will you be an active participant or passive bystander? The Navigator For future vehicles, communication equals trust Tenneco readies new semi-active digital suspension for 2020 New 90-degree turbo V6 leads Audi's hybridization blitz GKN using modular control algorithms for added systems integration U of M students engineer new autonomous shuttle system Jaguar's 2018 E-Pace shares Land Rover bones Ford pumps powertrains for 2018 F-150 2018 Subaru Crosstrek moves to new global platform Nissan's Ponz Pandikithura on EV lifecycle value
Technical Paper

Case Study for Defining Security Goals and Requirements for Automotive Security Parts Using Threat Modeling

2018-04-03
2018-01-0014
Several external networks like telematics, and SOTA and many in-vehicle networks by gateways and domain controllers have been increasingly introduced. However, these trends may potentially make many critical data opened, attacked and modified by hackers. These days, vehicle security has been significantly required as these vehicle security threats are related to the human life like drivers and pedestrians. Threat modeling is process of secure software development lifecycle which is developed by Microsoft. It is a systematic approach for analyzing the potential threat in software and identifying the security risk associated with software. Through threat modeling, security risk is be mitigated and eliminated. In vehicle software System, one of vulnerability can affect critical problem about safety. An approach from experience and hacking cases is not enough for analyzing the potential threat and preparing new hacking attack.
Technical Paper

Enabling Efficient Functional Safety Audits - The Missing Link between ISO 26262 and Automotive SPICE

2019-04-02
2019-01-0144
In the field of electric and electronic (E/E) design for the automotive industry, there are separate traditions related to functional safety and software quality assurance. Both relying on the evaluation of the processes used; Automotive SPICE provides detailed guidance on how to perform this evaluation whilst ISO 26262 does not and simply mention Automotive SPICE as one possible solution. ISO 26262 additionally requires for an evaluation of the functional safety achieved by the product and uses the process evaluation (or functional safety audit in ISO 26262 terms) to support the final functional safety assessment. The purpose is to evaluate the implementation of the necessary safety processes according to the claimed scope defined in the safety plan. Automotive SPICE does not make a distinction on whether the application of the software under evaluation is safety related or not.
Technical Paper

Analyze This! Sound Static Analysis for Integration Verification of Large-Scale Automotive Software

2019-04-02
2019-01-1246
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. One such requirement, imposed by all contemporary safety standards, is that no critical run-time errors must occur. Runtime errors can be caused by undefined or unspecified behavior of the programming language; examples are buffer overflows or data races. They may cause erroneous or erratic behavior, induce system failures, and constitute security vulnerabilities. A sound static analyzer reports all such defects in the code, or proves their absence. Sound static program analysis is a verification technique recommended by ISO/FDIS 26262 for software unit verification and for the verification of software integration. In this article we propose an analysis methodology that has been implemented with the static analyzer Astrée. It supports quick turn-around times and gives highly precise whole-program results.
Magazine

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: March 2019

2019-03-07
Editorial It's more than just a magazine The Navigator Needed: a step beyond STEM SAE AV Activities A listing of SAE International's autonomous vehicle-related offerings across the organization. Autonomy for the Masses Ford Autonomous Vehicles LLC aims to do for AVs what the Model T did for just about everyone. CEO Sherif Marakby explains. Speeding Thermal Analysis for Autonomous EVs Solving thermal challenges is vital to AEV development. Siemens PLM's new Simcenter integrated simulation package offers a high-fidelity, easy-to-use solution. New Mobility's Mega-Mappers Most believe ultrahigh-definition mapping is crucial to make high-level automated driving possible. Developing these maps is a huge undertaking-one that's enjoying a massive investment of money and talent. From a Blip to a Boom Automotive radar rides the 77-GHz technology wave toward greater capability and vehicle safety.
Technical Paper

Total Vehicle Integration and Design - Journey to Electrification, Digitization and Connectivity Leading to Autonomy

2018-04-03
2018-01-0003
Total vehicle integration and design is a complex process and deals with interactions of many subsystems. The subsystems in a vehicle not only have to perform their role but interfaces between the subsystems must be well understood to design for all the interactions. The global automotive market is following electrification, digitization and connectivity trends that eventually lead to Autonomy. Therefore, the vehicle integration design process needs to include these new use cases of these trends. The process starts with establishing the top-level vehicle metrics relative to key deliverables of the vehicle ranging from providing comfortable environment to the driver to good performance. The process of establishing vehicle level metrics is not trivial and quite often must be derived from the customer verbatim. Frequently, there are conflicting requirements and priority must be given to one over another.
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