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Book

Cybersecurity for Commercial Vehicles

2018-08-28
It delivers details on key subject areas including: • SAE International Standard J3061; the cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems • The differences between automotive and commercial vehicle cybersecurity. • Forensics for identifying breaches in cybersecurity. • Platooning and fleet implications. • Impacts and importance of secure systems for today and for the future. ...This book provides a thorough view of cybersecurity to encourage those in the commercial vehicle industry to be fully aware and concerned that their fleet and cargo could be at risk to a cyber-attack. ...It delivers details on key subject areas including: • SAE International Standard J3061; the cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems • The differences between automotive and commercial vehicle cybersecurity. • Forensics for identifying breaches in cybersecurity. • Platooning and fleet implications. • Impacts and importance of secure systems for today and for the future.
Journal Article

Cybersecurity Considerations for Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

2018-12-14
Abstract Trust in the digital data from heavy vehicle event data recorders (HVEDRs) is paramount to using the data in legal contests. Ensuring the trust in the HVEDR data requires an examination of the ways the digital information can be attacked, both purposefully and inadvertently. The goal or objective of an attack on HVEDR data will be to have the data omitted in a case. To this end, we developed an attack tree and establish a model for violating the trust needed for HVEDR data. The attack tree provides context for mitigations and also for functional requirements. A trust model is introduced as well as a discussion on what constitutes forensically sound data. The main contribution of this article is an attack tree-based model of both malicious and accidental events contributing to compromised event data recorder (EDR) data. A comprehensive list of mitigations for HVEDR systems results from this analysis.
Technical Paper

Integrated Safety and Security Development in the Automotive Domain

2017-03-28
2017-01-1661
The recently released SAE J3061 guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems provides high-level principles for automotive organizations for identifying and assessing cybersecurity threats and for designing cybersecurity aware systems in close relation to the ISO 26262 standard for the functional safety of road vehicles. ...., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. ...Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interconnection of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X).
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: October 2018

2018-10-01
Quotes from COMVEC 2018 Industry leaders spoke extensively about all things autonomous-ADAS, big data, connectivity, cybersecurity, machine learning-at the annual SAE event. Here's some of what they had to say. Fuel-cell Class 8-take 2.0 With a longer-range and more-refined fuel cell-powered heavy-duty truck, Toyota aims to eventually eliminate emissions from trucks serving increasingly congested California ports. ...Editorial Bring innovation, disruption in-house Adding 3D printing to design, manufacturing processes Upstream devoted to truck cybersecurity threats Jacobs employs cylinder deactivation in HD engines to lower CO2, NOx Emissions reductions continue to disrupt CV industry Mercedes doubles down on electric vans and buses, considers fuel cells Off-road bus from Torsus transports to hard-to-reach places Q&A Perkins pursues plug-and-play connectivity
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2017

2017-08-03
Connected commercial vehicles bring cybersecurity to the fore Connectivity, automation and electrification will largely drive vehicle developments in the coming years, according to experts presenting at the revamped SAE COMVEC 17.
Technical Paper

Secure Vehicular Communication Using Blockchain Technology

2020-04-14
2020-01-0722
Also, all the existing methods for vehicular communication rely on a centralized server which itself invite massive cyber-security threats. These threats and challenges can be addressed by using the Blockchain (BC) technology, where each transaction is logged in a decentralized immutable BC ledger.
Training / Education

Introduction to Highly Automated Vehicles

2020-12-07
Every year, the U.S. on average, experiences more than 34,000 traffic deaths and over 5 million vehicle crashes. While the trend in traffic deaths has been generally downward for the past decade, most of this reduction has been the result of optimizing passive occupant crash protection systems such as seatbelts and airbags. Highly automated vehicle's (HAV's) offer the potential to significantly reduce vehicle crashes by perceiving a dangerous situation before the crash has occurred and supporting the human driver with proactive warnings and in some cases active interventions to avoid or mitigate the crash.
Technical Paper

Safe and Secure Development: Challenges and Opportunities

2018-04-03
2018-01-0020
The ever-increasing complexity and connectivity of driver assist functions pose challenges for both Functional Safety and Cyber Security. Several of these challenges arise not only due to the new functionalities themselves but due to numerous interdependencies between safety and security. Safety and security goals can conflict, safety mechanisms might be intentionally triggered by attackers to impact functionality negatively, or mechanisms can compete for limited resources like processing power or memory to name just some conflict potentials. But there is also the potential for synergies, both in the implementation as well as during the development. For example, both disciplines require mechanisms to check data integrity, are concerned with freedom from interference and require architecture based analyses. So far there is no consensus in the industry on how to best deal with these interdependencies in automotive development projects.
Technical Paper

Research on CAN Network Security Aspects and Intrusion Detection Design

2017-09-23
2017-01-2007
With the rapid development of vehicle intelligent and networking technology, the IT security of automotive systems becomes an important area of research. In addition to the basic vehicle control, intelligent advanced driver assistance systems, infotainment systems will all exchange data with in-vehicle network. Unfortunately, current communication network protocols, including Controller Area Network (CAN), FlexRay, MOST, and LIN have no security services, such as authentication or encryption, etc. Therefore, the vehicle are unprotected against malicious attacks. Since CAN bus is actually the most widely used field bus for in-vehicle communications in current automobiles, the security aspects of CAN bus is focused on. Based on the analysis of the current research status of CAN bus network security, this paper summarizes the CAN bus potential security vulnerabilities and the attack means.
Journal Article

Towards a Cyber Assurance Testbed for Heavy Vehicle Electronic Controls

2016-09-27
2016-01-8142
Cyber assurance of heavy trucks is a major concern with new designs as well as with supporting legacy systems. Many cyber security experts and analysts are used to working with traditional information technology (IT) networks and are familiar with a set of technologies that may not be directly useful in the commercial vehicle sector. To help connect security researchers to heavy trucks, a remotely accessible testbed has been prototyped for experimentation with security methodologies and techniques to evaluate and improve on existing technologies, as well as developing domain-specific technologies. The testbed relies on embedded Linux-based node controllers that can simulate the sensor inputs to various heavy vehicle electronic control units (ECUs). The node controller also monitors and affects the flow of network information between the ECUs and the vehicle communications backbone.
Journal Article

Assuring Vehicle Update Integrity Using Asymmetric Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Public Key Cryptography (PKC)

2020-08-24
Abstract Over the past forty years, the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) technology has grown in both sophistication and volume in the automotive sector, and modern vehicles may comprise hundreds of ECUs. ECUs typically communicate via a bus-based network architecture to collectively support a broad range of safety-critical capabilities, such as obstacle avoidance, lane management, and adaptive cruise control. However, this technology evolution has also brought about risks: if ECU firmware is compromised, then vehicle safety may be compromised. Recent experiments and demonstrations have shown that ECU firmware is not only poorly protected but also that compromised firmware may pose safety risks to occupants and bystanders.
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1291
Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.
Technical Paper

Securing the Secret Key

2019-01-16
2019-01-0097
Recent advances in automotive technologies have paved way to a new era of connectivity. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are getting deployed in automobiles; many companies are developing driverless cars; connected cars are no more a work of mere research. [1] Vehicle manufacturers are developing ways to interface mobile devices with vehicles. However, all these advances in technology has introduced security risks. Unlike traditional computing systems, the security risk of an automobile can be fatal and can result in loss of lives [2]. The in-vehicle network of an automobile was originally designed to operate in a closed environment and hence network security was not considered during its design [3]. Several studies have already shown that an in-vehicle network can be easily compromised and an intruder can take full control of the vehicle. Researchers are working on various ways to solve this problem. Securing the in-vehicle communication by encrypting the messages is one such way.
Technical Paper

Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation - An Academia Perspective

2019-10-14
2019-01-2620
This paper and the associated lecture present an overview of technology trends and of market and business opportunities created by technology, as well as of the challenges posed by environmental and economic considerations. Commercial vehicles are one of the engines of our economy. Moving goods and people efficiently and economically is a key to continued industrial development and to strong employment. Trucks are responsible for nearly 70% of the movement of goods in the USA (by value) and represent approximately 300 billion of the 3.21 trillion annual vehicle miles travelled by all vehicles in the USA while public transit enables mobility and access to jobs for millions of people, with over 10 billion trips annually in the USA creating and sustaining employment opportunities.
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