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Journal Article

Cybersecurity Considerations for Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders

Abstract Trust in the digital data from heavy vehicle event data recorders (HVEDRs) is paramount to using the data in legal contests. Ensuring the trust in the HVEDR data requires an examination of the ways the digital information can be attacked, both purposefully and inadvertently. The goal or objective of an attack on HVEDR data will be to have the data omitted in a case. To this end, we developed an attack tree and establish a model for violating the trust needed for HVEDR data. The attack tree provides context for mitigations and also for functional requirements. A trust model is introduced as well as a discussion on what constitutes forensically sound data. The main contribution of this article is an attack tree-based model of both malicious and accidental events contributing to compromised event data recorder (EDR) data. A comprehensive list of mitigations for HVEDR systems results from this analysis.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: October 2018

Quotes from COMVEC 2018 Industry leaders spoke extensively about all things autonomous-ADAS, big data, connectivity, cybersecurity, machine learning-at the annual SAE event. Here's some of what they had to say. Fuel-cell Class 8-take 2.0 With a longer-range and more-refined fuel cell-powered heavy-duty truck, Toyota aims to eventually eliminate emissions from trucks serving increasingly congested California ports. ...Editorial Bring innovation, disruption in-house Adding 3D printing to design, manufacturing processes Upstream devoted to truck cybersecurity threats Jacobs employs cylinder deactivation in HD engines to lower CO2, NOx Emissions reductions continue to disrupt CV industry Mercedes doubles down on electric vans and buses, considers fuel cells Off-road bus from Torsus transports to hard-to-reach places Q&A Perkins pursues plug-and-play connectivity

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2017

Connected commercial vehicles bring cybersecurity to the fore Connectivity, automation and electrification will largely drive vehicle developments in the coming years, according to experts presenting at the revamped SAE COMVEC 17.

SAE J1939 Network Security

This document will provide recommendations to vehicle manufacturers and component suppliers in securing the SAE J1939-13 connector interface from the cybersecurity risks posed by the existence of this connector.
Journal Article

Towards a Cyber Assurance Testbed for Heavy Vehicle Electronic Controls

Cyber assurance of heavy trucks is a major concern with new designs as well as with supporting legacy systems. Many cyber security experts and analysts are used to working with traditional information technology (IT) networks and are familiar with a set of technologies that may not be directly useful in the commercial vehicle sector. To help connect security researchers to heavy trucks, a remotely accessible testbed has been prototyped for experimentation with security methodologies and techniques to evaluate and improve on existing technologies, as well as developing domain-specific technologies. The testbed relies on embedded Linux-based node controllers that can simulate the sensor inputs to various heavy vehicle electronic control units (ECUs). The node controller also monitors and affects the flow of network information between the ECUs and the vehicle communications backbone.
Technical Paper

Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2

Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
Technical Paper

Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation - An Academia Perspective

This paper and the associated lecture present an overview of technology trends and of market and business opportunities created by technology, as well as of the challenges posed by environmental and economic considerations. Commercial vehicles are one of the engines of our economy. Moving goods and people efficiently and economically is a key to continued industrial development and to strong employment. Trucks are responsible for nearly 70% of the movement of goods in the USA (by value) and represent approximately 300 billion of the 3.21 trillion annual vehicle miles travelled by all vehicles in the USA while public transit enables mobility and access to jobs for millions of people, with over 10 billion trips annually in the USA creating and sustaining employment opportunities.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2019

Over-the-air affair Remote updating of software and firmware on commercial trucks and off-highway machines is on the rise, not only for maintenance functions but also to add new features like operator-assist technology. Developments in engine-based gensets With demand for generator sets steady and regulatory change settling, suppliers can rationalize their offerings and push improvements in areas like noise abatement and economy. Testing, testing and even more testing The commercial-vehicle market is eager to adopt more ADAS and automated-driving innovations, but before those technologies get to the road they must first pass rigorous testing practices that prove their efficacy. Smart and connected powertrains FPT Tech Day reveals multi-power Cursor X concept, other "4.0 innovations" for hydrogen fuel cell, electric and natural gas propulsion.

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

Editorial The consolidation plot thickens The Navigator As the world turns to C-V2X, Europe picks WiFi Complexity of Autonomous-Systems Simulation, Validation Soars to the Clouds Scalable, cloud-based architectures are gaining greater acceptance for simulating and testing the myriad development aspects of automated driving. Connectivity Solutions for AVs The promises of fully connected autonomous vehicles are great, but so are the challenges. What M&E Can Teach the AV Industry About Data Media & entertainment offers important learnings on data retention, management, scalability and security. The Rodney Dangerfield of Automated-Driving Sensors Radar and lidar get all the attention, but Inertial Measurement Units are the backbone of sensor fusion. Suppliers are scrambling to make IMUs more accurate-and much less expensive. The Sense-itive Side of Autonomous Vehicles BASF is exploring how specific materials-and even paint colors and finishes-can improve the capabilities of AV sensors.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2018

Electrification not a one-size-fits-all solution Efforts in the off-highway industry have been under way for decades, but the technology still faces implementation challenges. SuperTruck redux A year plus into phase two of the promising DOE program to dramatically improve freight efficiency, project leads from three of the participating truck OEMs share their progress thus far and technology paths moving forward. From research to reality Danfoss works closely with off-highway OEMs throughout the development process, testing and demonstrating machines packed with new technology features. Big Data a focus for 2018 SAE President Mircea Gradu Velodyne CQO sees use of Big Data as a way to capitalize on multiple industry trends including vehicle electrification and automated vehicles.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2019

Electric machines find their niche Smaller machines working in cities are particularly ripe for electrification, but most off-highway applications will retain the internal-combustion engine. Big data, big benefits Data mining helps users and equipment developers use data from on-vehicle sensors to work more efficiently. Data connectivity in harsh environments Ensuring high-speed data transmission requires OEM designers to think more about components, placement and the impact of environmental conditions early in design. Trucks with intuition Perceptive Automata partners with Volvo Trucks to demonstrate AI technology that can determine when pedestrians will cross the road. Change is afoot Cummins and its CTO help focus the 2019 SAE COMVEC on the fast-shifting technology landscape that faces both on- and off-highway sectors. Editorial AI, ADAS & AVs-oh my!

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

ICE advances Engine developers employ revised electronic architectures, mechanical tweaks to boost fuel efficiency, performance of internal-combustion engines. Autonomous construction sites Equipment makers are testing the emerging technologies required to advance automation beyond individual machines. Modeling electric motors How to develop a traction drive using a multiphysics-based approach with 3D modeling and simulation. Solving the "telehandler problem" Two-stage overcenter valves create stability in machines with highly dynamic loads. Engineering the world's fastest tractor JCB worked with design and engineering specialists to build a spectacular speed record-breaker that topped 150 mph.

SAE Off-Highway Engineering: December 2, 2016

Autonomous plows ahead Agriculture, construction, mining-even marine-are advancing autonomous technology to improve the productivity and safety of vehicles on the job. Expediting engine design Simulation tools drive development of the most complex, fuel- efficient and powerful engines ever seen in off-highway applications. Industry 4.0: The smart factory arrives The plants that produce vehicles and their high-tech systems are increasingly employing intelligent systems, Big Data and advanced analytics to improve quality, safety and efficiency. The future is not so far-off Enhanced Cat 3500 engine boosts power 20%, trims fuel usage by 10% Phase 2 GHG rules driver for advanced technology, alternative fuels Eaton demonstrates waste heat recovery, variable valve actuation for HD diesels Hyliion develops add-on hybrid system for semi-trailers that reduces fuel consumption by 30% Tech-heavy Iveco Z Truck concept spawns 29 patents EPA's Grundler talks Phase 2 regs
Technical Paper

Buckendale Lecture Series: Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation—A Government Perspective

Transportation departments are under-going a dramatic transformation, shifting from organizations focused primarily on building roads to a focus on mobility for all users. The transformation is the result of rapidly advancing autonomous vehicle technology and personal telecommunication technology. These technologies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve safety, mobility, and economic opportunity for society and industry. Future generations of engineers and other transportation professionals have the opportunity to be part of that societal change. This paper will focus on the technologies state DOT’s and the private sector are researching, developing, and deploying to promote the future of mobility and improved efficiency for commercial trucking through advancements in truck platooning, self-driving long-haul trucking, and automated last mile distribution networks.
Technical Paper

The Autonomous Vehicle Challenges for Emergent Market

Technological advances in both hardware (Nano-electronics) and software (artificial intelligence) are increasingly influencing our lives on equipment and devices that surrounds us and more recently our means of locomotion. The autonomous vehicles, which previously appeared only in movie scenes, can already be found in our environment, such as ships, cars, trucks, tractors and aero engines. Considering the autonomous vehicles, its launching is much closer than we could imagine, since many companies signalize having the conditions to launch them in a large scale within 2018 year. The insertion of this type of technology opens a range of advances related to vehicles and the environment in which it is inserted. The communication between the vehicles, roads and people can be highlighted. These advances reveal a series of benefits to the customer such as free time during the route, higher safety, etc.

SAE Off-Highway Engineering: August 5, 2016

Clearing the air Sensors, diagnostics and controls advance to help trap emissions. Bringing the heat on cooling technologies Electronic controls, variable-speed fans cool engines, heat aftertreatment systems. 3D printing machines can't be built fast enough In the additive manufacturing world, the costs of components are dropping, the technology is becoming more reliable and parts are fabricated faster, allowing industries beyond aerospace to adopt additive technologies, says Oak Ridge Lab's Ryan Dehoff.